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Full text of "Commercial study"

COMMERCIAL STUDY 




DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT - GAINESVILLE , FLORIDA 

4 



COMMERCIAL STUDY 



Planning Division, Department of Community Development 
Gainesville, Florida 
September, 1969 



Prepared by the City of Gainesville under Contract with the Florida 
Development Commission. The preparation of this report was financed 
in part through an urban planning grant from the Department of Housing 
and Urban Development, under the provisions of Section 701 of the 
Housing Act of 1954, as amended. 



CITYCOMMI S SI O N 

Dr. Walter Murphree, Mayor-Commissioner 
Neil Butler 
Courtland Coll ier 
Perry C. McGsiff, Jr. 
Ted Will iams 

PLAN BOARD 

Dr. Clayton Curtis, Chairman 

Harold Bedell 

Thomas Coward 

Dr. Clark Hodge 

Sam Holloway 

Jack Rutledge 

Harold Walker 

CITY MANAGER 

B . Harold Farmer 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 

Norman J. Bowman, Director 
Audrey Wil lingham, Secretary 

PLANNING DIVISION 

Richard Kilby Assistant Director 

David E. Boyd Planner II* 

Thomas Greenwood Planner I 

William Neron Planner I 

V. Miles Patterson Draftsman 

Jay Badger Draftsman* 

Louie Wilson Planning Aide 

Mary Jo Boggs Clerk Typist 



* Former Employee, no longer on Planning Division Staff. 



ii 



TITLE: 



Commercial Study 



AUTHOR: 



SUBJECT: 



DATE: 



LOCAL PLANNING AGENCY: 



SOURCE OF COPIES: 



HUD PROJECT NUMBER: 



SERIES NUMBER: 



NUMBER OF PAGES: 



ABSTRACT: 



Planning Division, Department of Community 
Development, Gainesville, Florida 

Existing Commercial land Use 

Comrri3rcial Projections 

Prel iminary Commercial Land Use Plan 

September, 1969 

Gainesville City Plan Board 

Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and 
Technical Information, Washington, D.C. 

Department of Community Development, 
Municipal Building, Gainesville Florida 32601 

HUD Regional Office Library, Region III, 
645 Peachtree Seventh Building, 
Atlanta, Georgia 30323 

Florida P-54 

7 (of 12) 

112 

Review of population and economic growth 
trends and projections to 1980. Market analysis 
delineating the trade area and projecting com- 
mercial dollar sales and commercial land use needs 
for the forthcoming decade. Analysis of existing 
commercial land use and commercial zoning. Anal- 
ysis of Downtown's problems and recommendations 
for same. Discussion of strip commercial develop- 
ment verses planned shopping centers. Goals and 
principles for future commercial development. 
Preliminary commercial land use planning with 
specific discussions and illustrations for improving 
the socio-economic welfare of several commercial 
districts and planned shopping centers in the 
Gainesville Urban Area. The proposed Commercial 
Land Use Plan and a summary of recommendations 



• • • 

in 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

ABSTRACT „ iii 

LIST OF TABLES vii 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS t . viii 

INTRODUCTION 1 

Definitions 1 

Major Assumptions 2 

URBAN AREA GROWTH 3 

Population 3 

Dwelling Unit Construction 3 

Economic Base 4 

MARKET ANALYSIS 6 

Trade Area , 6 

Urban Area Income 9 

Urban Area Income Distribution 10 

Urban Area Retail Sales and Service Potential 10 

The 1975 and 1980 Markets 11 

EXISTING COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 16 

Analysis of Present Commercial Land Use and Zoning ... .16 
Downtown Gainesville 20 

Downtown Traffic Problems 21 

Off-street Parking Facilities 23 

Semi-Mall and Pedestrian Mall Beautification 23 

Parking Mall 25 

Taxable Importance of Downtown 28 

Strip Commercial Development 31 

Shopping Centers 36 

A choice of Shopping Center Patterns 38 

Location Tendencies of Existing Shopping Centers . . . .40 

Recent Trend for Commercial Location 40 

by Types of Stores 

GOALS AND PRINCIPLES FOR COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT . . .42 
THE PRELIMINARY COMMERCIAL LAND USE PLAN . .47 

Conservation and Rehabilitation of Existing Strip 47 

Commercial Concentrations 



v 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
(Continued) 



Page 

Conservation 47 

Rehabilitation 47 

Central B usiness District 48 

Unplanned Commercial Districts 53 

Planned Shopping Centers 88 

New Shopping Center Justification 

Through a Market Analysis 88 

Time Limit on Site Plan Approval 89 

Off-Street Parking and Landscaping 89 

Market Analysis for Other Commercial Use Groups 89 

Existing Planned Shopping Centers 90 

The Proposed Commercial Land Use Plan - A 

Summary of Recommendations 104 

Strip Commercial Areas 104 

Shopping Centers 105 

Shopping Centers Needed by 1980 105 

Additional Shopping Centers After 1980 . . . .110 
Conclusion 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 113 



vi 



LIST OF TABLES 



TABLE Page 

1. Out of Town Shopping by Gainesville Residents 7 

2. Average Income Estimates and Projections 9 

3. 1967 Urban Area Household and Group Quarters 10 

Income Distributions 

4. 1967 Commercial Market Analysis 12 

5. 1975 Commercial Projections 14 

6. 1980 Commercial Projections 15 

7. Existing Commercial Zoning and Land Use 17 

8. Non-Commercial Zoning 17 

(which allows Commercial) 

9. Commercial Land Use 33 

10o Factors Favoring Planned Shopping Centers 34 

Over Strip and Scattered Commercial Uses 

1 1 • Shopping Centers - Generalized 36 

12. Shopping Center Standards 92 



vii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Illustration Page 

1. Alachua County, Gainesville Urban Area, xi 

and City of Gainesville 

2. Dwelling Unit Construction 5 

3. Gainesville Trade Area 8 

4. Existing Commercial Land Use 18 

5. Zoning Permitting Commercial Uses 19 

6. Downtown Parking Loop 22 

7. Sketch of Semi - Mall 24 

8. Sketch of Pedestrian Mall 26 

9. Sketch of Parking Mall 27 

10. Downtown Gainesville 29 

1 1 . Proposed CBD Improvement Plan 30 

12. Strip Commercial 32 

13- A Choice of Shopping Center Patterns 39 

14. Unplanned Commercial Districts 54 

15. Planned Shopping Centers 91 

16. Pre I imi nary Commercial Land Use Plan Ill 

viii 



-1- 



INTRODUCTION 

Growth in commercial land use in the Gainesville Urban Area has followed 
a familiar pattern common to many cities. As an agricultural trading center for 
a fairly wide region, the commercial land use pattern which evolved was char- 
acterized by a tightly developed central core area ( new generally known as the 
Central Business District or CBD) where ihe farmers from outlying areas could 
come into town and shop for a variety of goods in a relatively small area. The 
hub of this core area was the County Courlhouse, which served as ihe focal 
point for the area. 

The coming of the automobile led to the now familiar "strip" commercial 
pattern radiating outward from the CBD along the major traffic arteries, as 
merchants tried to capture some of the available dollars before they reached 
"downtown". This trend was accentuated by the growth of commercial activities 
on major streets adjoining and eventually filling-in along the major streets 
between the CBD and the University of Florida campus. 

The automobile also gave rise to another post-war phenomenon, the shopping 
center. However, unlike many communities wherein the shopping center devel- 
oped far out into, the suburbs in the center of new residential growth, the first 
shopping centers in Gainesville were located just outside the CBD (such as the 
Gainesville Shopping Center and the Murphrys Center) . More recently new 
centers have ^ocated farther out from the center, but frequently with overlapping 
service areas with existing commercial areas. Another characteristic of the 
recent commercial growth has been a proliferation of the strip developments, 
especially food and service establishments catering in large part to today's mobile , 
student. 

Special emphasis and recommendations included in this study are made for 
the development and redevelopment of existing commercial problem areas as 
well as standards and principles to guide future commercial growth. The graphical 
product of this study and its recommendations is known as the Preliminary Commercial 
Land Use Plan. This plan will designate anticipated potential "best areas" for 
future commercial development based upon the analysis and conclusions presented 
within this and previous studies. 

Definitions 

Note should be taken of the following terms of refsrence in this study. 
Central Business District: is that area containing the retail core as well as the 
financial and administrative centers of the region. For the purposes of this 
study, it is that area shown in Illustration 10 on page 29 . 

Effective Buying Income: is gross income minus taxes. 



-2- 



Gross Leaseable Area: is the total floor area designed for tenant occupancy 
and exclusive use, expressed in square feet and measured from the centerline 
of joint partitions and from outside wall faces - abbreviated GLA. 

Shopping Center: is a group of commercial establ ishments, planned, developed, 
and managed as a unit related in location, size, and type of shops to the trade 
area that the unit serves. It provides on-sito parking in definite relationship 
to the types and sizes of stores. 

Shopping Districts: are miscellaneous collections of individual stores on 
separate parcels of land strung along thoroughfare frontages or clustered in a 
contiguous area with or without incidental off-street parking. 

Strip Commercial Development: consists of generally unrelated tracts of contin- 
uous commercial developnent strung out along thoroughfares. 

Trade Area: is that area from which is obtained the major portion of the con- 
tinuing patronage necessary for steady support of the shopping area under con- 
sideration . 

Major Assumptions 

While preparing any document which deals with the future, certain con- 
ditions must be assumed upon which a meaningful analysis can be based. More 
specifically, for the purposes of this study, the following conditions were as- 
sumed as given and that they would not change significantly during the planning 
period to 1980. 

1 . No world war or prolonged crises will upset the economy. 

2. The Urban Area population will equal or exceed forecast growth. 

3. Income levels and purchasing power will continue to increase consistently 
as in the past. 

4. Citizen concern for community problems will continue. 

5. No major change will occur in consumer shopping habits. For example, the 
relative importance of mail order retail sales will not change significantly. 



URBAN AREA GROWTH 

A brief summary and analysis of existing and past trends of growth in the 
Urban Area is introductry in nature but can also serve as a basis for future com- 
mercial land use planning. An overview of Urban Area population trends, 
dwelling unit construction, and the economic base will specifically be pre- 
sented in the following sections. More detailed analysis of existing and anti- 
cipated Area population and economic base are found in studies recently com- 
pleted by the Department of Community Development. 

Population 

The amount of future commercial land use will be determined by two fac- 
tors: the number of people to be served and the amount of money they have to 
spend . 

The Urban Area has exhibited a steady growth since the end of World War M 
when returning servicemen, armed with the G. I. Bill, gave a sharp upward 
impetus to enrollment at the University of Florida. In 1936 the total population 
of the Urban Area was about 36,000. By 1960 it was estimated^at more than 
53,000, and today it is estimated to be in excess of 82,000. Of this amount 
almost 20,000 are students enrolled at the University. About 13,000 of the 
1960 populatipn of 53,000 were students.^ The projections of future popula- 
tion range from 1 15,000 to 120,000 by 1980. 4f The general population esti- 
mates and projections as well as other characterists are set forth in the Population 
Study^c and the Economic Base Study .4f 

Another prime consideration of commercial land use is the intensity of devel- 
opment, particularly the density of residential development. In this regard the 
urban area is, generally speaking, typical of most cities with the highest den- 
sities near the center and decreasing densities radiating outward. A good illus- 
tration of this is the fact that the approximate density of Gainesville before the 
large annexation in 1962 was 7.32 persons per square mile, but only 3.48 after- 
wards.^9 There are exceptions to this general pattern such as the higher intensity 
caused by the grouping of apartments around the University and smaller clusters 
of higher density scattered throughout the Urban Area. Several clusters are re- 
presented by the mobile home developments, particularly along Archer Road. 

Dwelling Unit Construction 

Dwelling unit construction serves as a good indicator of the location of future 
community facility needs and commercial expansion potential. By examining 
Illustration No. 2, it is apparent that the most recent growth has taken place in 



* Note: Numbers to refer to reference sources which are listed in the Appendix. 



-4- 



the residential northwest and in the southwest near the University of Florida. 
Most of the dwelling units built in the latter area are apartments. Other signi- 
ficant growth has occurred in the areas where the new public housing has been 
constructed . 

Economic Base 

Gainesville's title as the "Universtiy City" is very appropriate because the 
University of Florida provides the principle foundation for the economy of the 
area. It has long provided stability to the economy, even in times when other 
areas were experiencing economic difficulties. Growth of the University has 
been closely tracked by overall growth in the community. 

Prospects for the immediate future are for a continuation of this growth. One 
projection, perhaps slightly optimistic, is for enrollment to reach 34,501 by 1980. 
Previous studies in this series forecast an enrollment of 31,000 by that date. 

The University is only one source of governmental employment. Others are 
the Sunland Training Center with around 1, 100 employees, the Alachua County 
Public School District, the City of Gainesville and Alachua County, and the 
Federal Government (with postal employees, the Veterans Hospital, various re- 
search programs at the University and the U. S. Department of Agriculture),, In 
total, government at various levels is by far the largest employer in the area. 

Other base employment is provided by the manufacturing industry, led by 
the General Electric Plant at Hague and by Sperry Rand. However, less than 
ten (10) percent of all resident employment is in this category. 

The second largest type of employment is in services. Approximately 21 
percent of all resident employment is in the general category of services, ex- 
cluding education (which amounts to about 24 percent alone) and private house- 
hold workers. Another 16 percent are employed in retail trade. All service em- 
ployees, including education and private household workers account for 50 per- 
cent of the resident employment. 

Finally, agriculture and forestry continues to play an important part in the 
local economy, not so much in terms of the number of people employed, which 
has diminished over the years, but in terms of the value of the produce grown 
and marketed. The latter has steadily grown over the years with different farm 
products assuming the leading role. It is expected that the Gainesville Urban 
Area will continue in its historical role as the center for this agricultural region. 



* University of Florida Bureau of Business and Economic Research projection. 



-6- 



Without supportafive evidence to the contrary, it is assumed that the estab- 
lished growth trends of the past will continue in the immediate future. Those 
include an expanded growth at the University and Medical Center, a parallel 
growth in service industries and in lecal government, and a proportionate increase 
in the manufacturing segment. There is some evidence that a growing labor 
supply, coupled with an active promotional program, will undoubtedly result in 
an increase in the latter sector eventual ly. Government, especial I y education 
and services are likely to continue to be the basic foundation of the economy in 
the immediate years ahead. 



MARKET ANALYSIS 

The market analysis is undoubtedly the most critical section of a commercial 
land use study. This section outlines the present and probable quantity of future 
commercial land use needed. The results of the market analysis should give logical 
answers to such questions as: "How much commercial floor space and land area 
will be needed during the planning period;" and, "What kind of commercial acti- 
vities have potential for future expansion?" The answers to these and other ques- 
tions along with certain adopted goals and policies for the community will help 
shape the Preliminary Commercial Land Use Plan. 

The income and spending habits of university students, particularly residents 
of group quarters, differs substantially from the typical urban area household. 
Therefore, the estimated income of group quarters residents was deducted from 
the total Urban Area income and expenditures, and later combined for the totals 
used in the preliminary plan. 

The commercial base of the Gainesville Urban Area is second only to the 
Jacksonville Area in north central Florida. The Gainesville Urban Area pre- 
sently has approximately 36 acres of gross leaseable building area in commercial 
developments in shopping centers with, an additional 56 acres of commercial 
building area located outside the shopping centers. This latter floor area is 
located in strip and scattered areas. 

Trade Area 

Although it is impossible to precisely define within the limited resources of 
this study, the Urban Area's commercial sphere of influence I ies approximate! y 
in an area bounded by the communities of Ocala, Cedar Key, Mayo, Lake City, 
Lawtey, Starke, Keystone Heights, and Palatka (see Illustration No.??). This 
conclusion is based upon local newspaper circulation and trading areas of the 
larger department stores. Up-to-date information concerning the total number 



-7- 



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I 1 lustration 3 




-9- 



of persons within the trade area is non-existant because the latest census of the 
areas within the regional trade area was done in 1960. 

Although Gainesville presently serves a large north central Florida region, 
a survey conducted by the Department of Community Development in April of 
1967 showed that some Gainesville residents depend upon other commercial cen- 
ters outside the Gainesville Urban Area for certain types of shopping. Table No. 
1 shows this relationship. 

It is seen from the table that much of the clothing, appliances, and auto- 
mobiles purchased by Gainesville residents are bought outside Gainesville. In 
1967 approximately 5.6 million dollars was spent outside Gainesville for the 
eleven retail items listed in the table. However, the following analysis shows 
that many more retail and service dollars are coming into the 'Jrban Area than 
are leaving the Area. 

Urban Area Income 

The most basic estimate in a quantative analysis is the estimate of the income 
of the study area's population. As was explained previously, separate estimates 
were made for residents of households and persons living in group quarters. The 
year 1967 is used as the base year, because it is the most recent year for which 
reliable data is available. The average Household income estimates and pro- 
jections for 1967, 1975 and 1980 were prepared in the Economic Base Study^ 
for the Gainesville Urban Area. The estimated and projected incomes of Uni- 
versity of Florida students living in group quarters were based on data taken 
from a study of University student income and expenditures conducted by a 
class of marketing students under the direction of members of the University of 
Florida faculty. 10 

TABLE 2 

AVERAGE INCOME ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS 

1967 1975 1980 

Average Household Income in $7,965 $9,614 $10,287 
Urban Area 

Average Household Income for 7,360 9,111 9,891 
Alachua County 

Average County Household Income 5,597 6,771 7,245 
Outside Urban Area 

Average Income per Student in 1,800 2,480 2,840 

Group Quarters 

Source: DCD, Economic Base Study. 



-10- 



Urban Area Income Distribution 

The way in which an income unit (household, family, student, etc.) expends 
its dollar for current consumption is affected by several factors such as the a- 
mount of income, age of the income unit, geographical location of the income 
unit, number of members in the income unit, social and economic trends, and 
by several other factors. Income distribution estimates for Urban Area house- 
holds were derived from the United States Department of Labor data for the 
Southern Region. Income distribution estimates for group housing (at University 
of Florida) were from the University of Florida's Student Income and Expenditure 
Study 1 u which was conducted in 1967. 

TABLE 3 

1967 URBAN AREA HOUSEHOLD AND GROUP QUARTERS INCOME DISTRIBUTIONS 





Households 


Group Quarters 


Average Income 1967 


$7,965 


$1,800 


Taxes 


-828(10.' 


4%) -25(1.4°/ 


Effective Buying Income 


100.00% 


100.00% 


Food, Total 


22.8 


29.2 


Tobacco 


1.9 


1.4 


Alcoholic Beverages 


1.0 


1.9 


Housing, Total 


27.6 


30.8 


Clothing, Clothing Materials Services 


11.2 


7.8 


Personal Care 


3.2 


2.7 


Medical Care 


6.5 


3.8 


Recreation 


4.1 


7.1 


Reading 


0.8 


1.0 


Education 


1.2 


5.6 


Transportation 


17.7 


7.9 


Other Expenditures 


2.0 


0.8 


Totals 


100.00% 


100.00% 



Source: U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and Student Income and Expenditures study. 



Urban Area Retail Sales and Service Potential 

The percentage distribution of disposable income (income after taxes) in 
the above table can further be divided into commercial and non-commercial ex- 
penditures. By separating non-commercial expenditures ( using a more detailed 
breakdown than shown above) such as rent and utilities from the total disposable 
income distribution, it was found that the average Urban Area household spends 
approximately 70 cents of its disposable dollar for retail sales and services. 



-11- 



St udents in group quarters spend somewhat less of their disposable dollar on retail 
sales and services, spending about 59 cents of each disposable dollar for retail 
sales and services . 

Examination of Table 4, " 1967 Commercial Market Anal ysis" indicates that 
there are six major business groups in which the various business types are found. 
The first four business groups - "convenience", "service", "comparison", and 
"others" are generally considered compatible with shopping center development. 
"Automotive" and "miscellaneous" business groups are generally located in strip 
and scattered commercial areas. The use of these criteria along with projections 
of future available income for retail sales and services will provide a quantative 
basis for the Preliminary Commercial Land Use Plan and recommendations. 

Further examination of Table 4 indicates that the Gainesville Urban Area 
is retaining approximately 128% of its total available retail sales and service 
dollar (Column 7). The preceding figure of 128% means that the estimated total 
amount (Sales Management estimate) of dollars spent for retail sales and services 
in the Urban Area (includes sales to tourists, businessmen, and to trade area resi- 
dents living outside the Urban Area) was 28 percent greater than the estimated 
amount of dollars actually available for retail sales and services from Urban 
Area Residents. 

The percentages in Column 7 seem logical except for the estimate for auto 
dealers (154%), which seems i.igh. Table 1 on page 7 indicates that about 
17.5 percent of the dollars available for auto purchases by local area residents 
went to concerns outside the Gainesville Urban Area. Therefore, an extremely 
large expenditure for automobiles from outside residents would have been neces- 
sary to reach the 154% figure. Since many of the small towns in the trade area 
do not have auto dealerships, this could well be the case though. The other per- 
centages in Column 7 confirm the general belief that Gainesville Area commercial 
establishments, taken as a whole, serve as a regional commercial center, although 
a small percentage of Area residents still prefer shopping elsewhere for certain 
selected purchases. 

The 1975 and 1980 Markets 

Estimates of the amounts of income available to Urban Area businessmen in 
1975 and 1980 for retail sales and services are based upon several assumptions: 

1 . That Urban Area population will continue to grow steadily from an 
estimated 75,500 persons in 1967 to 120,340 persons in 1980. 

2. That real personal income will continue to increase during the planning 
period. 



' Totol Income before Taxes $ 183,335,000 

Tax.. -17,767,000 

Total Income after Taxes 165,568,000 

Income Ava ilable for Retail Soles and Services ■ ■ ■ ■ 114,251,000 

" Estimated Urban Area In- Sales Management Esti- 

come Available for Retail mate of Retail Sales & 

Business Business Sales and Services House- Census of Business Esti- 

Groups Types holds and Group Quarters mate of Dollars Spent for 

Serv. in the Urban Area 



TABLE 4 

1967 COMMERCIAL MARKET ANALYSIS 



Theoretical Dollars 
coming into the 
Urban Area 



Percent of Avail- 
able Dollars Retained 
in the Urban Area 



Column Explanations 



(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


i 4) 


s (5) 








Food 


% 
2(71 


24,023,000 


♦29,694,000 


5,671,000 


124 


Conven- 


Drugs 


3.9 


4,442,000 


4, 146,000 


- 296,000 


94 


ience 


Hardware 


1.9 


2, 128,000 


* 2,022,000 


- 106,000 


95 


Liquor 


1.4 


1,655,000 


* 2,052,000 


397,000 


124 




Subtotal 


28. 2 


~>1 ?4R 000 

•J £. f t*TU f \J\J\J 


Of , 7 1 ** , (AfU 


J , GXX>, UUU 


TT8 




Personal Serv. 


4.5 


5, 191,000 


6,700,000 


1 , 509, 000 


129 


Service 


Minor Repair 


0.9 


1,064,000 


750,000 


- 314,000 


70 




Subtotal 


5.4 


6, 255,000 


7,450,000 


1, 195,000 


TJf 




Gen Merch. 


11.3 


12,919,000 


20,061,000 


7,142,000 


155 




Apparel 


7.0 


7,963,000 


9,173,000 


1,210,000 


115 


Compari- 


Furn. & Appl . 


5.1 


c pox C\CY\ 
j , oZO , \J\A) 


7 OOP C\(Y\ 

I, 77 Of UUU 


z , 1 / z , uuu 


1 17 
1 of 


son 


Eating&Drinking 


6.2 


7,054,000 


8,394,000 


1,340,000 


119 




Subtotal 


29.6 


33,762,000 


45,626,000 


11,864,000 


T35" 




Specialty Stores 














Art Dealers, Jew- 










Others 


elry Stores, Pet 


6.6 


7, 564,000 


9,568,000 


2,004,000 


127 




Shops, etc. not 














covered under oth- 












er groupings 










T27" 




Subtotal 


6.6 


7,564,000 


9,568,000 


2,004,000 




Sales & Acces. 


15.5 


17,725,000 


27,372,000 


9,647, 000 


154 


Automo- 


Auto Repairs 


1.7 


1,937,000 


* 2,983,000 


1 , 046, 000 


154 


tive 


Gas Stations 


5.4 


6, 160,000 


8,938,000 


2,778,000 


145 




Subtotal 


22.6 


25,822,000 


39,293,000 


13,471,000 


752 




Lumber, Build- 














ing Mat. , & 


3.7 


4, 149,000 


* 2,993,000 


- 1,156,000 


72 


Mis. 


Farm Equip. 














Comm. Rec . 


2.9 


3,280,000 


1,375,000 


- 1.905,000 


42 




Hotel, Motel 


1.0 


1, 171,000 


2,525,000 


1,354,000 


216 




Subtotal 


7.6 


8,600,000 


6,893,000 


- 1,707,000 


80 


TOTALS 




100.0 


114,251,000 


146,744,000 


32,493,000 


128 



CoK 



Major groupings of commercial business types. The business 
types found in the "convenience", "service", "comparison", 
and "others" business groups are generally compatible with 
and best located in planned shopping centers. "Automotive" 
and "miscellaneous" business groups are incompatible with 
Shopping Center Developments and usually locate in "strip" 
or "scattered" commercial areas. 

The major retail and service business types. 

Average distribution of the Urban Area retail sales and ser- 
vice dollar based upon Bureau of Labor Statistics for the 
Southern Region and the University of Florida's Student Income 
and Expenditure study. 

Estimated dollars available from Urban Area residents for 
expenditures in the various business types listed. 

Sales Management's Survey of Buying Power estimates of 
actual retail sales and the Census of Business estimate of 
dollars spent for service in the Urban Area. 

Note: Copyright 1968, Sales Management, Survey of 
Buying Power; further reproduction is forbidden. 

Column 5 minus column 4. 

Column 5 divided by column 4. 



* Planning Division estimate based upon Sales Management data. 



-13- 



3. That the portion of a person's effective buying income spent on 
retail sales and services will continue approximately the same. 

4. That the Gainesville Urban Area will strengthen its position as 
the major commercial center of north-central Florida. 

The projections of Urban Area retail sales and service dollars for 1975 and 
1980 are based upon the assumption that the Gainesville Urban Area will continue 
to serve a larger market area. That is, instead of capturing 128% of the Area's 
available dollars for retail sales and services, Urban Area commercial establish- 
ments will capture 133% and 135% of its^ residents' available retail and service 
dollars by 1975 and 1980, respectively. 

As is indicated in Table 5, the Gainesville Urban Area is expected to have 
a total effective buying income (gross income minus taxes) of $236,899,000 in 
1975. Of this $161,402,000 will be available from Area residents for retail 
sales and services. Since the projected amount of retail sales and service dollars 
to be captured in the Urban Area is $213,947,000 (based on 133% of available 
retail and service dollars), approximately 52 million retail and service dollars 
will be netted by the Urban Area from sources outside the Area. 

The methodology stated in the preceeding paragraph holds true for the 1980 
retail sales and service projections. Of the projected $300,668,000 of disposable 
income for the Urban Area in 1980, $205,387,000 is expected to be locally avail- 
able for retail sales and services. The Urban Area commercial establishments will 
capture a total retail and service volume equal to 135% of the local available 
dollars, or $277, 102,000. This indicates that by 1980 Urban Area commercial 
establishments should be netting approximately $72,000,000 more than the avail- 
able local retail and service dollars of Urban Area residents. 

Theoretically, the Gainesville Urban Area would only require a total of 340.3 
acres and 41 1 .8 acres to satisfy its 1975 and 1980 commercial land needs, res- 
pectively, if all previous commercial development had efficiently used the land 
which it now occupies. In reality, however, the existing land to building ratio 
for all commercial development is about 6.3:1 (See Table 9 on page''') versus 
the 3.0:1 ratio used in modern shopping centers. Several apparent reasons con- 
tribute to the low intensity use of existing commercial land in Gainesville: 

1. Approximately 77% of existing commercial land is in strip and 
scattered locations, generally associated with wasteful and in- 
efficient land use. 

2. Many commercial establishments exist in buildings once built 
for residential purposes with a lower intensity of development. 



* Planning Department estimates. 



-14- 



TABLE 5 

1975 COMMERCIAL PROJECTIONS 



Totol Income Before Taxes 






... $ 264,996,000 


























-28,097,000 
















Total Income After Taxes 








236,899,000 
















Income Available for Retail Sales 






161,402,000 
























Percent of Ava 


il- 


Increase Ex- 


Annual Dollar 


Estimated 












Estimated Urban Area c 


ble Dollars Expected Retail and Service 


pected in 


volume per sq. 


Floor Area Expected Park- 


Estimated In- 


Expected In- 


Business Business 


Income Available for 


to be captured 


Dollars Expected to 


Retail 


foot of Gross 


Increase 




ing to Building 


crease in Park- 


c rea se i n Pork - 


Groups 


Types 


Retail 


Sales and Services 


in Urba 


n 


be spent in Urban 


Salesand Ser- 


leasable Area 


needed by Ratio for Future 


ing Needs by 


ing & Bui Id ing 








Area 




Area in 1975 


vices 1967-75 


Standard 


1 975 




Development 


1975 


Land Use by 1975 


(1) 


(2) 




(3) 


(4) 






(6) 


(7) 


(8) 




(9) 


(10) 






% 


$ 


% 






$ 


$/sq.ft. 


sq.ft. 






acres 


acres 




Food 


21.1 


34,082,000 


130 




44,307,000 


14,613,000 


96 


152,000 












Drugs 


3.8 


6,162,000 


100 




6, 162,000 


2,016,000 


63 


32,000 


5.1 








Conven- 


Hardware 


1.8 


2,860,000 


100 




2,860,000 


838,000 


31 


27 000 


acres 


1 

o: i 


15.3 


20.4 


ience 


L iquor 


1.5 


2,484 000 


120 




2,981,000 


929,000 


86 


11,000 












Subtotal 


2875 


45,588,000 


m 




Tin nnn 

JO, O 1 U, UVJU 


18,396,000 




222,000 












Personal Serv. 


5.2 


8,232,000 


130 




10,702,000 


4,002,000 


34 


118,000 


3.0 








Service 


Minor Repair 


0.9 


1,430,000 


80 




1, 144,000 


394,000 


34 


12,000 


acres 


3:1 


9.0 


12.0 




Subtotal 




9,662,000 


123 




11,846,000 


4,396,000 




130,000 












Gen Merch. 


11.4 




l 

■ j j 




28,580,000 


8,519,000 


60 


142,000 












Apparel 


7.1 


11,435,000 


120 




lo, UUU 


4,549,000 


60 


76,000 


8.2 








Compar- 


Fum. & Appl . 


5.0 


8,021,000 


140 




11,229,000 


3,231,000 


53 


59, 000 


acres 


3:1 


24.6 


32.8 


ison 


Eating&Drinking 


6.4 


10,257,000 


125 




12,821,000 


4,427,000 


55 


80,000 












Subtotal 


29.9 


48, 152,000 


138 




66,352,000 


20,726,000 
















Speciality Stores 




























Art Dealers, Jew 


















1.7 








Others 


elry, Pet Shops, 


6.4 


10,269,000 


130 




13,350,000 


3,782,000 


50 


76,000 


acres 


3:1 


5.1 


6.8 




etc . not covered 




























under other groupings 


























Subtotal 


6A 


10,269,000 


T3o 




13,350,000 


? 7ft? nnn 




76,000 












Sales & Acces. 


15.0 


24, 100,000 


155 




37,355,000 


9,VoJ,UUU 


03 


285,000 


10.0 








Automo- 


Auto Repairs 


1.7 


2,725,000 


155 




4,224,000 


1,241,000 


35 


35,000 




20.0 


30.0 


tive 


Gas Stations 


5.3 


8,697,000 


150 




13,046,000 


4, 108,000 


35 


117,000 


acres 


2:1 




Subtotal 


22.0 


35,522,000 


154 




54,625,000 


15,332,000 




437,000 












Lumber, Build- 


















1.0 




2.0 






ing Mat, & Farm 


3.4 


5,578,000 


85 




4,741,000 


1,748,000 


40 


44,000 


acres 


2:1 


3.0 


Misc . 


Equipment 




















* 


* 


* 




Comm. Rec. 


2.9 


4,914,000 


60 




2,948,000 


1,573,000 


* 


* 












Hotel, Motel 


1.1 


1,716,000 


220 




3,775,000 


1,250,000 


* 


* 




* 


* 


* 




Subtotal 




12,208,000 


~W 




11,464,000 


4,571,000 




44,000 










TOTALS 


100.0 


161,402,000 


133 




213,947,000 


L~! 1AO C\(\C\ 

6/, zUJ,UUU 




1,266,000/29.0 acres 


76 


105.0 


Note: All 


projections of income and income distribution are by the Pi 


anning Division. 
















* Not Applicable 



























-15- 



TABLE 6 

1980 COMMERCIAL PROJECTIONS 



Total Income Before Taxes $ 337,684,000 

Taxes - 37,016,000 

Total Income After Taxes 300,668,000 











Percent of Avail- 






Annual Dollar 


Estimated 












Estimated Urban Area 


able Dollars Ex- 


Retail and Service 


Increase Ex- 


volume per sq. 


Floor Area Expected Park- 


Estimated In- 


Expected In- 


Business 


Business 


Income Available for 


pected to be spent 


Dollars Expected to 


pected in Re- 


foot of Gross 


Increase ingto 


Building 


crease in Park- 


crease in Park- 


Groups 


Types- 


Retail Sales & Services 


in Urban Area in 


be spent in Urban 


tail and Ser- 


leasable Area 


needed by Ratio 


for Future 


ing needs 


ing & Building 






1980 


Area in 1980 


vices 1967-80 


Standard 


1980 Development 


1967-80 


Land Use by 1980 


(') 


(2) 




(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(81 


(91 


(10) 


(11) 




% 


$ 


% 


$ 


$ 








Acres 


Acres 




Food 


21.1 


43,333,000 


130 


56,333,000 


26,639,000 


96 


278,000 










Drugs 


3.8 


7,874,000 


105 


8,268,000 


4, 122,000 


63 


65,000 9.7 








Conven- 


Hardware 


1.8 


3,680,000 


105 


3 864 000 


1 842 000 


31 


59,000 acres 


3:1 


29. 1 


38.8 


ience 


Liquor 


1.5 


3, 119, 000 


125 


3,899,000 


1,847,000 


86 


22,000 










Subtotal 


28.2 


58,006,000 


125 


72,364,000 


34,450,000 




424,000 










Personal 






















Service 


Service 


5.0 


10,232,000 


132 


13,506,000 


6,806,000 


34 


200,000 5.2 










Minor Rep. 


0.9 


1 , 804, 000 


90 


1 674 000 


874 000 


34 


26,000 acres 


3:1 


15.6 


20.8 




Subtotal 


5.9 


12,036,000 


T26~ 


15, 130,000 


7,680,000 




226,000 










Gen Merch. 


11.3 


23,371,000 


157 


36,692,000 


16,631,000 


60 


277,000 










Apparel 


7.1 


14,501,000 


125 


18,126,000 


8,953,000 


60 


149,000 16.1 








Compar- 


Fum. & Appl . 


5.0 


10,265,000 


140 


14,371,000 


6,373,000 


53 


120,000 acres 


3:1 


48.3 


64.4 


ison 


Eating & Drinking 6. 3 


12,973,000 


130 


16,865,000 


8,471,000 


55 


154,000 










Subtotal 


29.7 


61,116,666 


ITT 


86,054,000 


40,428,000 




700,000 










Speciality Store: 


I 






















Art Dealers, Jew- 




















Others 


elry Stores, Pet 
























Shops, etc. not 


6.4 


13,179,000 


135 


17,792,000 


8,224,000 


50 


164,000 3.8 


3:1 


11.4 


15.2 




covered under oth- 












acres 










er groupings 






T35 


















Subtotal 


6.4 


13, 179,000 


17,792,000 


8,224,000 




164,000 










Sales & Acces. 


5.1 


30,922,000 


155 


47,929,000 


20,557,000 


35 


587,000 








Automo- 


Auto Repair 


1.7 


3,470,000 


155 


5,379,000 


2,396,000 


35 


69,000 20.4 


2:1 


40.8 


61.2 


tive 


Gas Stations 


5.4 


11,069,000 


155 


17, 157,000 


8,219,000 


35 


235,000 acres 










Subtotal 


22.2 


45,461,000 


155 


70,465,000 


31, 172,000 




891,000 









Lumber, Build- 
Mat & Farm 
E quipme nt 
Comm . Rec . 
Hotel, Motel 
Subtotal 



3.5 7,176,000 



3.0 
1.1 
7.6 



6,175,000 
2,208,000 
15,559,000 



88 

65 
225 
98 



6,315,000 

4,014,000 
4,968,000 
15,297,000 



3,322,000 

2,639,000 
2,443,000 
8,404,000 



40 



2.0 
83,000 acres 



83,000 



2:1 



4.0 



6.0 



TOTALS 100.0 205,387,000 135 277,102,000 

Note: All projections of income and income distribution are by the Planning Division. 
* Not Applicable 



130,358,000 



2,488,000/57.2 acres 



149.2 



206.4 



-16- 



3. The overall character of Gainesville is associated with less intense 
land development. 



It is expected that some of the existing 578 acres of commercial land use will 
become more intensely used when replacement of existing structures becomes nec- 
essary. However, projected commercial land needs for 1975 and 1980 will be 
based upon anticipated increases in retail and service dollars in the Urban Area. 
Columns 6-11 in Tables 5 and 6 indicate how much additional retail sales and 
service dollars, gross floor area, parking area, and commercial land will be needed 
by 1975 and 1980, respectively. 



Preliminary to the planning stage is the examination of existing commercial 
land use and commercial zoning. The following sections will give detailed des- 
criptions of major problems confronting commercial grov/th and their affect upon 
the community as a whole. By examining existing commercial patterns, trends, 
and problems, it is hoped that realistic recommendations can be made later in 
this study to implement the establishment of a healthy and attractive commercial 
base in Gainesville. 

Examination of Tables 7 & 8 reveal the following facts: 



EXISTING COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 



Analysis of Present Commercial Land Use and Zoning 



a. Existing commercial zoning 



1,886.0 acres 



b. Non-commercial zoning (which allows com 
mercial ) 



2,988.8 acres 



Total allowing commercial 



4,874.8 acres 



c. Existing commercial land use (developed) 



578.0 acres 



The Land Use Analysis for the Gainesville Urban Area showr vhat a substantial 
surplus of land exists in most of the commercial zoning categories' This is 
indicated by Table 7. 



-17- 



TABLE 7 

EXISTING COMMERCIAL ZONING AND LAND USE 



Zoning Category 


Used 


Vacant 


Zoning Total 


ity Ar 


. uo acres 


1 1 CIA 

1 1 . 96 acres 


1 1 .96 acres 


i ry br 


1 o 


CO C A 

52.50 


72 o 04 


f*!i>.. dm 
Lity bU 








L ity a\- 1 


a o a. 
0. 36 





0.36 


Lity Bl-Z 


1 O OA 

iz . 90 


0. 42 


13.32 


County BK 


42. 79 


100. 71 


143.50 


C ity BK- 1 


"7 ZZ 

/ . 66 





7.66 


/"* ' t D D O 

City BK-z 


124.01 


22 . 11 


146. 12 


City bL 


99. 6/ 


163.09 


262. 76 


County BA 


8.86 


78.32 


87.18 


City BA-1 


121.27 


20.37 


141.64 


v^ity bA-Z 


17 A OO 

i /4 . yy 


1 OA AO 

1 Z0 . 09 


OO C AO 

z95 . 0b 


County BW 








County BH 


85.08 


604.19 


689.27 


County MB 


15.11 





15.11 


Totals 


712.24* 


1, 163.95 


1,886.00 



* This total includes all uses of commercially zoned land, whether it is a 
commercial use or otherwise. 



Source: DCD: Land Use Analysis, January 1969. 



Zoning Category 

City RP 
City & MS 

County 
County MP 

Totals 



TABLE 8 
NON-COMMERCIAL ZONING 
(which allows Commercial) 



Used 

91 .29 acres 
389.37 

107.80 

588.46* 



Vacant 

53.84 acres 
922.38 

1,424.12 



2,400.34 



Zoning Total 

145. 13 acres 
1,311.75 

1,531.92 

2,988.80 



* This total includes all uses of commercially zoned land, whether it is as 
commercial use or otherwise. 



Source: DCD; Land Use Analysis. 



-20- 



The previous tables and mcp s show that the Gainesville Urban Area pre- 
sently has approximately 1, 165 acres of vacant, commercially zoned land.* 
Vacant non-commercially zoned land which allows commercial development 
amounts to an additional 2,400 acres, or a total of 3,565 acres of vacant 
land with potential for commercial development. As previously stated, there 
are only 578 acres of commercial land use in the Gainesville Urban Area at 
the present time . 

Summary of Existing Commercial 
Development 

1 . Less than 12 percent of land permitting commercial is developed 
for that use. 

2. More than 73 percent of all land allowing commercial development 
is vacant. The 27 percent that is developed includes industrial 
development, residential development and other land uses. 

3. Only 25 percent of the total commercially zoned land in the Urban 
Area is being utilized by commercial establishments (not including 
non-commercial zoning which allows commercial uses.) 

4. Approximately 63 percent of all commercially zoned land is vacant, 
while 12 percent is being used for non-commercial purposes. 

5. Approximately 80 percent of the non-commercial zoning which 
allows commercial development is vacant. 

6. About 5.5 percent of all commercially developed land is non-conforming. 

Downtown Gainesville 

Much valuable information was presented in a 1963 publication, Downtown 
Gainesville., It is not a purpose of this report to analyze the downtown area in depth. 
It will suffice here to point out trends in downtown development and recommend steps 
that can be taken to alleviate some of Downtown's ills. 

In the past twelve years such major shopping centers as the Gainesville Mall, 
the Westgate shopping complex, and the Gainesville Shopping Center have devel- 
oped. Several other shopping centers are presently in the planning stages. This 
trend indicates that much more substantial efforts must be made and encouraged in 
the direction of Downtown revital ization if it is to sustain a relevant or meaningful 
position in the retail market. Downtown Gainesvil'e is presently being hurt by the 
impact of shopping centers and if steps are not taken to stabilize this trend the eventual 
decay, both economically and socially, of the entire Downtown cou'd ensue. 



* These figures are as of January, 1969. 



-21- 



A beginning to Downtown rcvital ization was made with "Operation Facelift". 
This program was instituted in 1964 by the Downtown Development Committee of 
the Chamber of Commerce, merchants, property owners, local architects, and the 
City to "clean-up, paint-up, fix-up the downtown face for the maximum physical 
change at the least cost". The specific accomplishments of this program were the 
refurbishing of store fronts, removal of some large overhanging signs, and the ad- 
dition of planter boxes along the major Downtown streets. This program generated 
widespread community interest and generally restated the belief that the Downtown 
retailing component should be encouraged and preserved. 

Since the completion of "Operation Facelift", the exodus of retail stores has 
not lessened, as can be seen by the vacant shops in the Downtown area. However, 
the expansion of the office sector as seen by such new structures as the Municipal 
Building complex, the County Courthouse, the Citizens Bank, the Federal Building, 
and the Certified Public Accountants Building lend credence to the belief that there 
is a need to preserve and enhance the Downtown area. Retailing and office activities 
depend upon each other in attracting people to any location, whether in an outlying 
shopping center or in the Downtown area. The present trend of office expansion in 
the Downtown area will tend to encourage retail activities, and vice versa, if sev- 
eral pressing problems of circulation (both pedestrian and vehicular) to and within 
the Downtown area can be eliminated. Other problems are off-street parking and the 
overall Downtown atmosphere. 

Downtown Traffic Problems 



If the downtown area is to survive the increased competition from new shopping 
centers, it must solve the circulation problems such as traffic congestion and on-street 
parking. A major step toward relieving congestion and eliminating on-street parking 
would be the completion of the proposed parking loop which has been debated since 
early 1964 (see Illustration No. 6). This circumferential route would substantially 
relieve the discomfort one presently experiences while trying to find convenient park- 
ing directly related to business space. 

Another series of problems relate to the circulation difficulties encountered with-*" 
in the area of the proposed parking loop. In 1854 wnen Gainesville's streets were 
originally laid out, no one could foresee a time one hundred years later when the two 
hundred foot blocks they designed would be a major problem in moving large volumes 
of traffic. Now, however, the many intersections created by the short blocks often 
interfere with traffic movement. As traffic volumes increase this problem will become 
even more pronounced. 

A second problem which stymies circulation in the downtown area is the poor 
coordination between traffic signals. Traffic signals should function as both a regu- 
lating device and a control designed to keep traffic moving smoothly. Downtown 



Illustration 6 

DOWNTOWN PARKING LOOP 




C.B.D. PARKING LOOP 



7////\ PARKING LOTS 



-23- 



travel time for shoppers, businessmen, and employees should be kept at a minimum 
through the coordination of traffic signals. 

A third problem hindering circulation in the downtown area, while being a 
definite safety hazard, is the angle parking areas along south First Avenue and east 
First Street. The problem arises not so much when entering an angle parking stall, 
but when backing out of the stall. This type of parking movement substantially im- 
pairs the traffic carrying capacity of a given street, which is its primary function. 
The street areas now used for angle parking could be used for street widening and/or 
for implementation of the semi-mall or parking mall concepts discussed later. 

Off-Street Parking Facilities 

While better traffic circulation remains a paramount desire of anyone who has 
driven in the Downtown area, there have been recent indications that there is a 
shortage of off-street parking during peak hours, in the northeast quadrant. The 
ultimate solution to the problem of congested Downtown streets caused, in part, 
by existing on-street parking is the implementation of the proposed Parking Loop 
with additional off-street parking areas located on the Loop. The Parking Loop 
will tend to keep the shopping auto out of Downtown and allow the pedestrian 
greater freedom and safety while shopping or doing business. The gradual discon- 
tinuance of the dual role of some streets in the Downtown Area in providing both 
parking and "through" traffic movements will facilitate the consolidation of small 
blocks, thus unifying the shopping areas into a pedestrian - oriented shopping and 
business atmosphere (see Illustration No. 11 on page 30). 

Semi-Mall and Pedestrian Mall Beautification 



Semi-malls have recently been used successfully in revitalizing depressed com- 
mercial areas in many American Cities. The concept does not involve street closings 
nor does it involve as much capital investment as a pedestrian mal I . The semi-mall 
effect is achieved by widening the sidewalks into the areas of existing on-street 
parking and landscaping with trees, benches, and attractive displays as is seen 
in II lustration No. 7. 

The feasibility of semi-mall beautification in Downtown Gainesville is based 
upon two assumptions: 

1. That the proposed Parking Loop will become a reality. 

2. That additional off-street parking will be provided to make feasible 

the use of previous on-street parking areas for semi - mall 
beautification . 

Pedestrian malls have also had tremendous economic and social impacts on 
many of the Downtown areas of our nation's cities. Commercial activities have been 
revitalized and expanded in such cities as Kalamazoo, Michigan, Fresno, California, 



-25- 



and Appleton, Wisconsin. Gimble's Department Store is building a large store 
in Downtown Appleton largely as a result of the recent construction of parking ramps 
and off-street parking facilities, coupled with good pedestrian access via malls 
and semi-malls. 

The mall concept could be employed in Downtown Gainesville on several 
small side streets (see Illustration No. 11). Three important effects of a ped- 
estrian mall in Downtown Gainesville would be: 

1 . Pedestrian malls would create pleasant open space and leisure areas, 

injecting a sense of tranquilty and pride to persons who are shopping 
and doing business in the Downtown area . 

2. The mall would enhance pedestrian safety and circulation to and from 

parking areas located on the parking loop. 

3. The mall could combine small blocks, making possible the elimination 

of some Downtown traffic signals. 

In summary form, the major problems demoting Downtown Gainesville are of a 
circulatory and functional nature. More specifically they are: 

A. Not enough well located off-street parking areas. 

B. Excessive amount of on-street parking areas. 

C. Lack of coordination between Downtown traffic signals. 

D. Fragmentation of Downtown into 200 foot square blocks. 

E. Lack of open space and leisure areas within the Downtown Area. 

F. General lack of provisions for the separation of pedestrian and auto 
circulation Downtown. 

Parking Mall 

Illustration No. 9 sketches the parking mall concept following this section. 
The basic concept of a parking mall is the utilization of existing wide streets for 
the sole purpose of parking automobile. The parking mall prevents "through" traf- 
fic movements and better utilized short, disfunctional downtown streets. Appropriate 
landscaping to identify and conceal the parking mall is utilized. 

Several Downtown streets in Gainesville could be utilized for parking malls, 
providing low-cost parking near the major business and retail areas. These streets 
include East First Street and South First Avenue. 



-26- 

@[<ETCH ©F PEDESTRIAN MAUL. 

ILLUSTRATION 




-27- 



OKf^TCH OF PARKIN© MAUL 



ILLUSTRATION 9 




-28- 



Parking malls on Downtown Gainesville streets would tend to consolidate small 
blocks and encourage pedestrian circulation. A more limited number of improved 
streets in the retail business core would be used for carrying large volumes of traffic. 

Taxable Importance of Downtown 



An effort was made through the City Tax Assesor's Office to compare the im- 
portance of Downtown, from a tax producing standpoint, to that of some of the newer 
shopping centers and the City as a whole. 

A. In 1967, one fourteenth (1/14) or approximately 12.8 million dollars 
of the City's total taxable land and improvements lay within the 
shaded area, while this area contained lessthan one hundredth (1/100) 
of the total area of the City. 

B. The following percentage breakdown indicates the taxable importance 

of the six types of land use within the downtown area: 



1) Retail 51.5% 

2) Office 27.5 

3) Transportation & Communications 9.0 

4) Residential 7.5 

5) Warehouse & Wholesale 2.4 

6) Vacant 2. 1 

TOTAL 100.0% 



C. Approximately 6. 1 million dollars or one-half (1/2) of the total taxable 
value of land and improvements within the downtown area lies inside the 
proposed parking loop (cross-hatched area). 

The tax producing value of the three largest shopping centers (Gainesville Mall 
Fields Plaza, Gainesville Shopping Center, and the Westgate Shopping Complex) 
can be compared to Downtown. The combined values of these centers was approxi- 
mately 7.5 million dollars or only 59 percent of the total value of the Downtown 
area. In addition, because of the tax exempt nature of much of the land and 
buildings located in and around Downtown (City, County, Federal, churches, etc.) 
much of the importance of Downtown as a region-serving center have been over- 
looked in the previous discussion. 

A recent thesis studying the impact of the office worker on Downtown Gainesville 
has recommended the creation of a Downtown improvement fund. The improvement 
fund would be supplied by a fixed percentage of an increase in tax revenues resulting 
from increased retail sales and subsequent higher land values. L is fund would tend 
to perpetuate Downtown development. However, substantial capital outlays for Down- 
town improvements should be based upon a detailed study analyzing the future role of 



-29- 
II lustration 10 

DOWMTO^^I <3A!nfe:f>villf: 



PL B 



■Z3I BT rtl 



9 TH AVE 





AVE 



JL 



1 



16TH PL 



3 




. 4TM _ AVE j 

IkigJj t«" 

!!ave ' «ip 



hc AVE 



_.*VEJl_J \U® 



— ^mm i hi 



it 




in 



1 1 lL 




i/tj/Mt/jJrj. ' 111, 



rVjiAatjiji 




3 



BE 



□Dim 



L 



9 11 



.it 



ONi VERSi T> | | 



« 



Jl_. 




□ 



ED 

«l r'anrnnrfTr. 
□ DIE 
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" NO 



2N0 



PL 



AVE 1 1 



□ 




1 TAX EXEMPT PROPERTIES & IMPROVEMENTS 



AREA WITHIN PARKING LOOP 



AREA UNDER CONSIDERATION 



-31- 



Downtown Gainesville and the expected cost benefit relationships of specific pro- 
posed capital improvements. 

Illustration No. 1 1 is a rendering showing the incorporation of pedestrian malls, 
semi-malls, parking malls, and the parking loop in Downtown Gainesville. 

Strip Commercial Development 

Strip commercial areas consist of shallow tracts of commercial development 
spread out along heavily traveled thoroughfares. This type of commercial land use 
is often referred to as "ribbon development", "string street", "shoestring" and by 
numerous other names. Illustration No. 12 is an example of strip commercial dev- 
elopment along a major thoroughfare in Gainesville. 

At least two types of strip and scattered commercial development can be cited 
in Gainesville: 1) Protrusion along major streets radiating out from the central busi- 
ness district; 2) Developments along major cross city thoroughfares intersecting the 
streets radiating from the Central Business District. 

In the absence of natural or cultural obstacles, the Central Business District 
of an American city commonly extends itself outward along major radiating traffic 
arteries. The extent to which the district protrudes, and therefore the beginning 
point of the strip commercial street, depends on the criteria used for identifying 
Central Business District types of establ ishments. The Central Business District uses 
seem to occupy less space in proportion to sales and to depend more on the mass mar- 
ket than do businesses on the strip commercial streets. It is clear that the services 
offered are far in excess of the needs of the local residential enclaves adjoining such 
areas. 

One of the characteristics of this type of string street is its accessibility from 
all parts of the City, assured by its proximity to the City's heart. There is also 
opportunity to serve customers associated with the district itself. It is common to 
find small wholesale distributors as well as establishments performing service functions 
for the central business district on this type of strip commercial street. 

Several of Gainesville's major cross-town thoroughfares are developing strip 
commercial characteristics, and where they intersect with strip commercial streets 
radiating from the central business district, a major concentration of commercial 
activities is occurring. These intersections have often proven adequate as sites 
for shopping centers, which are a more practical and functional type of commercial 
land use than strip commercial developments. Unfortunately, Gainesville, like 
many other rapidly growing American cities, has chosen to concentrate much of its 
commercial expansion into strip commercial developments. 



-32- 
II lustration 12 
STRIP COMMERCIAL 




-33- 



There are numerous diseconomies to the community associated with strip 
commercial development. Strip commercial development hampers comparison 
shopping. When stores are strung out along a thoroughfare, customers are usually- 
limited to one or possibly two choices of goods. The distances between similar 
stores makes further comparison shopping impractical. Retail outlets not located in 
recognized shopping centers in Gainesville generally make less efficient use of their 
sites. The table below summarizes existing retail land use and land-building ratios. 
It is seen that the average noncenter- located establishment utilizes approximately 
113% more land per square foot of building area than those establishments located in 
shopping centers. JAbl E 9 

COMMERCIAL I AND USE 

1 and-Building 
Land Area Building Area Ratio 

Establishments in Shopping 5,870,500 1,570,500 3.7:1 

Centers 

Establishments no in Shop- 19,419,500 2,444,500 7.9:1 

ping Centers 

Total Commercial 25,290,000 4,023,000 6.3:1 

* All figures in square feet 

Source: DCD estimates based on Land Use Analysis and special non-residential tax 
print out., 

The level of traffic, noise, and bright lights associated with commercial estab- 
lishments have a particularly detrimental effect on adjacent residential development, 
especially if no buffering or screening is provided,, The linear pattern of strip com- 
mercial development exposes more residential structures to this incompatible use than 
planned and well buffered shopping centers. Several residential areas in Gainesville 
are literally enclosed by strip commercial development. Some of these areas contain 
ghetto-like conditions with declining property values and high public service costs, 
such as police and fire protection. 

Much of older Gainesville is characterized by two hundred foot blocks. The 
encouragement of poorly planned strip commercial development accompanied by 
more curb cuts would seem suicidal. The problems encountered by ft potential cus- 
tomers exiting from and entering the lanes of traffic in a strip commercial area tend 
to discourage the use of such establishments. The absence of off-street parking for 
strip commercial also tends to dampen sales potential. But perhaps most serious, the 
traffic hazards presented by such developments not only are a detriment to the devel- 
opment itself, but to the community at large. This is true not only from a safety 



-34- 



standpoint but also from the resultant loss of traffic capacity which frequently 
must be made up by additional lanes or new roads. 

In recapitulating, strip commercial development tends to limited com- 
parison shopping, has a higher land to building area ratio, increases traffic 
congestion and traffic hazards, causes rapid deterioration of abutting resi - 
dential structures, and frequently necessitates cosl I y improvements 1o the 
major "strip" thoroughfares. 



TABLE 10 



FACTORS FAVORING PLANNED SHOPPING CENTERS 



OVER STRIP AND SCATTERED CO/vWERCIAL USES 



Factors 



Strip Commercial 



Economic Land Use Linear, uneconomic use of land 



Planned Shopping Cp 



Compact, economical |i 
land 



Effect on Real 
Estate 



Circulation 



Strip commercial usually has a 
depressing effect on continguous 
residential land. Contiguous 
vacant areas tend to be held for 
speculation in the hope of in- 
creasing values. This makes im- 
mediate development forbiding. 
The vacant lots grow up in weeds, 
having a blighting effect on near- 
by residential and commercial 
development. 

Strip commercial requires the 
consumer to use the streets to get 
from one shop to another. 



Shopping centers can se 
gate themselves with a 
strip. They can stabiliz 
rounding uses and mc!:c 
more attractive for rosid 
uses. 



Consumer uses special in 
nal walks designed for h 
safety and convenience 



Customer Draw- 
ing Power 



In strip commercial, the only at- 
trations of the business to the 
consumer is its own goods and 
se rvices. 



The combined goods and 
vices of the stores in a 
shopping center attract c 
tomers. 



Safety 



Strip commercial increases vehic- 
ular and pedestrian congestion at 
intersections. 



Most vehicular and pede: 
traffic are segregated fro 
intersections. 



-35- 

TABl.F. 10 (Continued) 



Blight 



Social 



Community Costs 



Haphazard location of driveways 
increases the points of conflict 
on busy streets. 

Normally strip commercial has no 
definite boundaries. The use of 
the contiguous land remains un- 
certain, vacant lots become 
blighted and the surrounding area 
also deteriorates. 



Individual shops may be more con- 
veniently located for a few. 



Scattered locations present a 
more difficult and expensive 
problem of providing necessary 
police and fire protection and 
other community services 

More traffic lanes must be pro- 
vided at citizen expense to han- 
dle traffic due to decreased 
capacity. 



Controlled access. 



Normally shopping centers have 
some kind of buffer and the 
boundaries are usually defin- 
ite and permanent. This 
leaves less question as to the 
future development of the sur- 
rounding area. 

A single location creates a 
mere important and centrally 
located meeting place for the 
residents of the surrounding 
neighborhoods. 

Police and fire protection 
and other community services 
can bo more efficiently and 
economically rendered at less 
cost to the taxpayer. 



-36- 



S hooping Confers 

Shopping centers now account for about 30% of the total retail sales in the 
United States even though they only have 12.5% of the total number of stores. ^ 
Some general rules of thumb based on available statistics indicate the following 
characteristics based on size. 





TABLE 11 
SHOPPING CENTERS - 


GENERALIZED 




GLA in 
Square Feet 


Gross Amout Retail 
Sales Million Dollars 


Parking Spaces 
Involved 


Annual P-tail Sal 

Per Car .pace 


50,000 


13 


450 


6,700 


150,000 


25 


1,200 


6,700 


250,000 


35 


2,000 


7,000 


500,000 


50 


3,800 


8,000 


1,200,000 


80 


6,300 


10,000 



Source: Applied Parking Techniques, Parking Progress, Bulletin # 121, 1968 



On an average, one acre of land will support 30,000 square feet of parking - 
parking and floor area being a 3:1 ratio. This type of commercial development 
is to be encouraged in the future. Land, both that making up the site and the 
surrounding land, is used economically and strengthens the identity of the sur- 
rounding neighborhood it is designed to serve. Properly designed shopping centers 
can do much to encourage good traffic and pedestrian circulation. 

Planned shopping centers have been developed in Gainesville at a significant 
rate during the past decade (See Illustration 15 ). Approximately 39% of com- 
mercial floor space in Gainesville Urban Area is presently in planned shopping 
centers, while they constitute only 23% of the total land in commercial us-3. 

Many existing Gainesville centers lack visual appeal due to an absense of 
trees, malls, proper integration with surrounding usos and general landscaped.^ 
areas within the center and around the perimeter. The term "asphalt desert" has 
often been applied to this type of development. In order to improve existing 
shopping centers and provide logical criteria for future shopping center devel- 
opments, the following general standards have been established. 



-37- 



Although only one or two existing shopping centers are "purebred" and fit 
a textbook definition, Gainesville's shopping centers have been categorized primarily 
according to their function in the community. Four distinct types of centers 
exist in the Urban Area: 1) local convenience centers, 2) neighborhood centers, 
3) community centers, and 4) major centers (see Table 12 on Page 92). 

Local Convenience Centers should be located at the intersections of col- 
lector streets and along major thoroughfares. Their service radius is about one- 
half (1/2) mile, serving a minimum of 500 families. Local convenience centers 
attract some of their customers on foot, while limited off-street parking space is 
also provided. A convenience grocery store is usually the major tenant along 
with a few other convenience stores, such as a laundromat, hairdresser, barber 
shop or small hardware store. Twenty-six local convenience centers are identi- 
fied and discussed in a later section of this report. 

Neighborhood Centers cat er primarily to the convenience needs of the 
neighborhood also and differ from the purely convenience center primarily 
in size only. Whereas a small self service grocery is typically the major tenant 
of a local convenience center, a supermarket is generally the major tenant of a 
neighborhood center. Other typical tenants include drug stores, personal ser- 
vice stores and most non-comparison type uses. It caters to a larger population of 
approximately 1,500 or more families and has a service radius of about one and 
one-half (1 1/2) miles. Most uf its c^tomers arrive by automobile. The latter 
dictates a location on a major thoroughfare, preferably at the intersection of 
two thoroughfares or at least the intersection of a major thoroughfare and a 
collector street. 

Neighborhood centers should be located centrally to the area they are to 
serve, which is a neighborhood or equivalent residential area. It is therefore 
important that they be designed and landscaped in a manner such that they will 
complement and not be injurious to the surrounding residential area. Gainesville 
has three centers which are classified as neighborhood and which are discussed 
in more detail in a following section. Perhaps the best example of a typical 
neighborhood center is Northgate on 16th Avenue. 

Community Centers are the first level center which carries comparison 
shopping goods, and caters to a much larger area than the two previous types 
of centers. They should have good automobile access from four directions 
on streets with ampl carrying capacity. The service radius is three to five 
(3-5) miles serving a minimum of 5,000 families. The major tenants of these 
centers are a variety store and/or junior department store and one or more 
supermarkets. Well planned off-street parking should be a characteristic of this 
type of center. More specifically, landscaping is used to encourage the use of 
parking aisles instead of allowing the practice of "shortcutting" across semi-vacant 
"asphalt jungles". The overall character of the center is enhanced when a low 
buffer, such as a hedge, is used to dampen the effect of large expanses of parking 
area . 



-38- 



There are four shopping centers in the Urban Area which were classified 
as community centers. None of these could be considered very typical of this 
type of center by accepted definition. Westgate and Central Plaza, while 
functioning as community centers, are both small in comparison to national 
standards. Field's Plaza is a "hybrod" which really serves the total population 
of the Urban Area, although in volume and size it is more like a community 
center than any larger center classification. The Gainesville Shopping Center 
is the largest community center in the Urban Area. 

Major Centers are the largest centers in an area and should therefore 
only be located on major highwavs or expressways and should be easily ac- 
cesible from all parts of the regional trade area. With a service radijs of 
eight (8) miles or more, such a center would serve Alachua County and perhaps 
areas in north central Florida outside the County. Designed to serve a minimum 
of 100,000 persons the major tenants ere one or more department stores, variety 
stores, comparison shopping stores, and personal service stores, large on-site 
parking areas are provided for the regional consumer. As before, properly 
landscaped parking areas and a possible mounding effect can be used to conceal large 
parking areas and is useful in promoting the desirability of the shopping center and 
the surrounding land uses. The Gainesville Mall is the only development clas- 
sified as major center in the Urban Area. 

A Choice of Shopping Center Patterns. 

With the exception of the new Gainesville Mall, all shopping centers in 
the Gainesville Urban Area have been ouilt in a "strip" pattern (see Illustration 
13. This building pattern functions well in a local convenience center or 
neighborhood center with a limited number of shops, but its apprcpriatness in 
community and major centers should be investigated. 

The Gainesville Shopping Center, a community center, stretches in a 
linear fashion approximately 1,000 feet (about four city blocks) along a major 
thoroughfare. The two major tenants, a large supermarket and a junior de- 
partment store are at either end of the "strip". Two shopping characteristics 
not meant to be found in shopping centers can be observed at this center: 

1 . Shoppers have a tendency to use their cars to get from one end 

of the "strip" to the other, creating congestion and safety hazards 
within the parking area. 

2. Shoppers tend to do less comparison shopping, since the stores 
are not conveniently grouped. 

Several other centers in Gainesville have similar problems, but to a lesserextent 
in most cases. 



-39- 
II lustration 13 

CHOICE OF SI POPPING CENTER PATTERN 



U" 



MALL 




STRIP 



CLUSTER 



-40- 



The four other basic patterns: the "L ', the "U", the Mall, and the Cluster 
can be used in most shopping centers. The "L" and "U" can be turned in various 
directions for optimum site orientation with respect to the site shape and to the 
surrounding street patterns. 

Location Tendencies of Existing Shopping Centers 

There is a definite tendency toward the grouping of shopping centers either 
next to each other (Field's Plaza and the Gainesville Mall) or within each other's 
market area. 

In the case of the location of the Gainesville Mall next to Field's Plaza, 
the two centers interrelate and form a much larger and more complete shopping 
center complex which effectively draws from a larger regional trade area. At 
the present time these two centers depend upon each other, in part, for drn v ig 
from a broad range of social - economic groups. Their proximity to each other 
is and should continue to be beneficial. However, as shopping centers concen- 
trate around a single major intresection, costly traffic congestion and obsolete 
thoroughfares are the results. The cross traffic between these two centers has 
created a definite hazard on 23rd Boulevard. 

In the case of the smaller existing neighborhood centers, their market areas 
(approximately 3 miles in diameter) overlap substantially. This means that the 
effected shopping centers cannot exist solely on their market area sales potential 
but must attract sales from a larger area. This becomes a serious handicap to 
these centers when a new, well-located shopping center begins to service a 
portion of their over - extended market area. This leads to the creation of a 
group of weak shopping centers and over - competition. 

Recent Trends for Commercial Location by Type of Store 

An examination of building starts since 1963 indicates that the following 
type of retail establishments tended to locate in planned shopping centers: 

. Department and variety stores 

Food stores 
. Apparel and accessory stores 
. Drug and jewelry stores 

Laundries, beauty, and barber shops 

Those commercial uses locating predominantly in "strip" or "scattered" lo- 
cations since 1962 are: 

Automobile dealers 

Eating and drinking establishments 

Indoor commercial amusement businesses 



-41- 



Medical, health, and legal services 
Motels, hotels, and tourist homos 

Building materials, hardware and farm equipment stores 

Those commercial uses which did not exhibit a preference for location during 
1962-1962 were: 

Furniture, home furnishings and equipment stores. 
Finance, Insurance and real estate offices. 

Summary of Existing Commercial 
land Use 

Existing commercial land use in the Gainesville Urban Area util izes about 
578 acres. There are presently approximately 1,900 acres of commercial zoning 
in the Area, 1, 164 acres of which is vacant land. There are an additional 2,909 
acres of other zoning which allows commercial development, 2,400 acres of which 
is also vacant. 

The overall commercial pattern in Gainesville has taken to sprawl develop- 
ment with some major thoroughfares lined with "strip development" and intersections 
of major streets intensely developed with shopping centers. Downtown's problems 
lie not only with increasing competition from outlying shopping centers, but with 
an inability to solve its problems of poor circulation and inadequate off-street 
parking . 

Efforts must be made now to establish policies and means through which the 
revitalization and renewal of Downtown and outlying shopping districts can be 
achieved. Firm policies relating to the future location and development of new 
shopping districts must be established. 



-42- 



GOAI.S AND PRINCIPLES FOR COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 

The development of commercial land lias a,roa'ly changed in this country 
over the years. At one time pedestrian traffic dictated the growth pattern, hut 
now it is geared almost exclusively to ihe needs and demands of the automobile. 
While pedestrian movement inside shopping centers and within the CCD are im- 
portant factors, parking needs, flexibility of site choice resulting from freedom 
of movement, and one-step shopping are all dominant factors in the dcvclcpment 
of today's commercial growth patlern. 

These auto generated characteristics have led to the evolution of the shop- 
ping center as the principal development pattern of commercial land use. This 
evolution is far from complete, however, as ceiloin uses have continued to lo- 
cate along major traffic arteries on individual sites, with their only concession 
to the shopping center concept being in the form of larger lots to handle more 
autos than before. This letter type of commercial land use has generally led to 
the reservation of most land on all major traffic, arteries for commercial development. 
This reservation, whether actually zoned for commercial use or only held vacant 
by the owner in hopes of such future use, not only greatlv exceeds any loqical 
demand for such land, but frequently is ill located to serve the actual demand 
as development proceeds farther out into the suburbs. In addition, those areas 
for which there is a demand and on which development occurs often die of self- 
strangulation as over-development clogs the traffic arteries on which they are 
dependent. 

Some more rational pattern of commercial development is essential. To this 
end the following sections contain certain goals and principles, which if followed 
and implemented, should go a long way toward achieving a better land use pattern 
in the Urban Area. 

Goals for Commercial Development 

1. Adequate Supply of Goods and Services 

The population of the Urban Area has a purchasing power and demand or 
need for a given level of goods and services which should be met locally 
to the maximum extent possible. It is the objective of this Plan to assure 
the fulfillment of this need by providing adequate, convenient sites for the 
outlets which cater to this purchasing power or need. 

2. Varied Sites Suitable for a Variety of Outlets 

The need for suitable sites to provide for the many varies outlets for 
goods and services spans a wide range in size and location. It varies from the 
single use on a major thoroughfare which relies almost exclusively on passerby 
traffic, such as a tourist facility to a range in shopping centers from the smallest 



-43- 



convenience center to the large regional facility serving a even larger 
area than that considered in this plan. 

3. Functional, Safe, Attractive Design and Display 

Many successful businesses attract attention to themselves through 
distinctive store design, advertising or display. While individually such 
displays may not be offensive, when included with others the results have 
an unsightly, cluttered effect. 

Commercial centers are also important focal points, usually located 
on the major thoroughfares of the community. Their appearance is there- 
fore a community interest which should be considered in the compre- 
hensive plan. 

4. Minimum Conflict With Other Urban Activities 

Shopping areas are among the busiest places in the Urban Area, with 
their basic success often measured by the traffic they generate. This level 
of activity with its attendant noise, odors, dirt, glare and safety hazards 
frequently conflicts with other uses which have a less intense nature, 
particularly that of the residential sector. It is therefore a very basic 
objective of this plan to minimize such conflict. 

5. Effective Use and Development of Old Centers 

Commercial areas, like all other uses, can become obsolescent with 
age. With such obsolescence come blight with attendant cost not just 
to the owners of the property but to the community at large. A goal of 
this plan is to encourage the conservation of such areas in keeping with 
the old adage that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. 

The following are the major premises and principles to be adhered to in future 
commercial development. 

Premise: 



Commercial activities are oriented to the automobile. 
Principles: 
1 . Location 

Commercial activities will be located on major streets and particularly 
at the intersections of such major streets and central to their service area. 
Local access streets by their design and nature should not carry the non- 



-44- 



local traffic associated with commercial development. Concentrations 
of commercial at intersections distributes the traffic to and from such 
concentrations over tha Jorgest possible street network and is therefore 
to be desired when these streets are designed to handle such traffic. 

2. Access 

Access to and from commercial sites should be carefully designed and 
located so as to minimize friction with flow of traffic on the adjacent 
thoroughfares. All access points on a street by their nature create points 
of conflict with the flow of through traffic, causing delay, reducing the 
street capacity, and creating hazards. 

3. Parking 

Commercial activities must be provided with ample parking to satisfy 
the demands of all customers of that activity. If less parking than needed 
is provided it is detrimental to the welfare of that activity as well as the 
general community. Vacant stores resulting from insufficient parking 
are a blighting influence, and public streets designed to carry traffic 
can become extremely expensive parking lots. 

4. Concentration of Uses 

Concentration of both similar and complementary uses are encouraged 
to the extent that such grouping promotes a more efficient, viable and 
logical use of land. Certain uses frequently lend strength and support 
to each other when grouped together, and therefore are encouraged, 
unless such concentrations are at the expense of adequate service to the 
whole area, or by design or nature become a burden on the area v/here 
they are located . 

Premise: 

Basic conflicts occur where two different uses of land meet, with the 
extent of such conflict varying with the difference in intensity of each 
use, aesthetic qualities, the amount of buffering provided between such 
uses, and many other factors. 

Principles: 

1 . Location 

Incompatible land uses will not be located adjoining to one another 
without sufficient buffering to insure the harmonious existence of both 
uses. 



-45- 



2. Transitional Uses as Duffers 

When not contrary to any other principle set forth herein, incompatible 
land uses may be buffered by transitioned uses more compatible with the 
use on each side; for example, offices or multiple family may be used to 
separate single family areas from commercial areas. 

3. Screening 

Screening by walls and/or landscaping will be required where other 
separation is not possible. 

4. Layout 

A rear to rear arrangement between incompatible land uses will be pro- 
moted in deference to a front to front or front to rear relationship. The 
latter two shall be avoided whenever possible with a side to rear rela- 
tionship permitted only where absolutely necessary. 

Premise: 

Shopping centers are the principal development pattern in retailing 
today. 

Principles: 

1 • Encouragement of Shopping Centers 

Because shopping centers more logically adhere to modern standards in 
commercial development, particularly in recognizing the importance of 
the automobile in their design, they are to be encouraged in preference 
to scattered, unconcentrated and unplanned commercial development. 

2. Shopping Center Design and Development 

Because they are larger, normally a group of stores and not a single use, 
shopping centers have a greater impact on the community than a single 
use and therefore, the design of centers including considerations of 
traffic flow and control, both internally and externally, compatibility 
with the surrounding uses and the general arrangement of the center must 
be given proportionate attention before a center is constructed; and 
likewise, location and market area must be considered and centers not 
constructed simply to supplant an existing center or because it is a 
better arrangement of commercial uses. 



-46- 



Premise: 

Not all future commercial activities will be located in planned shopping 
centers. 

Principles: 

1. Development of Vacant Commercial Land 

Non-center commercial uses should be encouraged to locateon those 
vacant parcels of land in existing commercial areas in deference to the 
needless opening up of new areas to strip commercial. 

2. Sites for Marginal Uses 

The legitimate needs of marginal or so called "incubator" commercial 
enterprises can best be served by the "fillcring down" process of exist- 
ing commercial as opposed to opening up new areas to commercial devel- 
opment . 

3. Spread of Commercial 

The existence of commercial on one corner of an intersection need not 
dictate the development of all corners with the same or similar use; 
nor does the existence of commercial on a major thoroughfare dictate 
that all frontage must be similarly used. 

Premise: 



Commercial activities frequently occupy the most conspicuous sites in 
an area, and are important influences on the impression which others 
have of that area. 

Principles: 

1 . Appearance 

The control of signs, promotion of landscaping and overall appearance of 
commercial areas are legitimate concerns of the general public and 
will be guaranteed through site plan approval. 



-47- 



THE PRELIMINARY COMMERCIAL LAND USE PLAN 

The Preliminary Commercial Land Use Plan is the community's graphic guide 
as to how and where future commercial growth should occur. It is not law nor does 
it necessarily dictate the detailed development of every parcel of land having 
commercial potential. It is subject to future revisions and reconsiderations via 
public hearings. In essence, it is meant to be a general public policy plan for 
commercial development. 

Conservation and Rehabilitation of Existing Strip Commercial Concentrations 

The Gainesville Urbanized Area has many distinct commercial concentrations. 
These consist of both planned shopping centers and concentrations of unplanned strip 
developments. Some of the latter are still relatively healthy and are located in or 
are serving stable residential neighborhoods. But even the healthiest of these "strip" 
commercial districts may begin to feel the impact of the shopping center and its many 
advantages. These same shopping districts, with their lack of unity, definative boun- 
daries, off-street parking, and other amenities, are gradually affecting the surrounding 
residential neighborhoods. 

With the continuation of the trend in shopping center development and the 
possibility of Downtown revetal ization, it is only logical to assume that many of 
these districts cannot continue to prosper unless some program of action is t^iken to 
improve their competitive position. At the same time the city cannot affort'to reap 
the ill effects (tax revenue loss, additional cost of surrounding residential neigh- 
borhood, etc.) resulting from these shopping districts being removed from economic 
usefulness. 

Conservation 



Conservation of a commercial strip area need not be an expensive proposition, 
compared to other renewal programs. Actions that might be included under conser- 
vation are: paint-up and clean-up measures, better sign control, coordinated 
leasing practices based on the compatibility of uses, better traffic control, a con- 
siderable range of simple remodeling, provision of various amentities, and other 
items which can be achieved by a local organization and cooperation among mer- 
chants and owners. 

Rehabil itation 



Rehabilitation of a commercial strip involves a more drastic and concerted 
program. It generally involves a major re-arrangement of the layout of a district, 
adequately planned and properly located off-street parking facilities, considerable 
demolition and redevelopment and adjustment of the affected street pattern. 

In most of Gainesville's problem commercial areas conservation and limited 
rehabilitation, in the form of providing better access and off-street parking, will 



-48- 



be recommended. No major demolition will be required. Sketches of the major 
commercial strip areas of the community with recommendations for improving some 
are included in following sections. 

Central Business District 

Existing 

The geographic center of the Central Business District is approximately at the 
intersection of Main Street and University Avenue, the ordinate streets from which 
all other streets are numbered in Gainesville. The businesses on the blocks immediate' 
ly surrounding this intersection are primarily retail outlets using only the ground floor, 
with the upper floor being used by service establishments generally associated with 
Downtown,as storage for the main use in the building or as offices. A significant amoun 
of the floor space is presently vacant. This may be attributed, in large part, to the trer 
Gainesville and other cities toward shopping center patronage for retail goods. 

Several office buildings have located on the periphery of the retail core. This 
trend is evidenced by the existence of NE 1st Street and North Main Street between 
North 2nd and 8th Avenues. The frontage of SW 4th Avenue is also largely used by 
offices. Other predominantly non-pedestrian - oriented uses such as auto-sales 
and services and wholesaling and warehousing have located along University Avenue 
and Main Street near the edges of the intensely used land within the Central Business 
District. 

Governmental operations play a very significant role in Downtown Gainesville. 
City, County and Federal buildings form a "governmental triangle" in the eastern 
portion of the Central Business District. The new Municipal Building - Library com- 
plex and the Federal Building represent recent very significant commitments on the 
part of government to enhance Downtown Gainesville as a business, governmental, 
and civic center. 

The marginal residential areas immediate surrounding the Central Business District 
are presently mixed with scattered retail outlets and offices. Much of the residential 
areas in the near southwest and northwest, in particular, are in need of immediate 
redevelopment. 

Future 

It is recommended that the area generally bounded by the proposed parking loop 
be developed and/or redeveloped with retail outlets and offices which are pedestrian - 
oriented, which is now this area's predominant role. The existing character of devel- 
opment in this area, together with the closely related existing off-street parking and 
recommended off-street parking tied to the loop streets, should foster such a pedestrian 
oriented role in the future for this portion of the Central Business District. 



EXISTING LAND USE - 1969 

CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT 



SINGLE FAMILY 
I j MULTIPLE FAMILY 



OFFICES 



COMMERCIAL 
IHH INDUSTRIAL (wholesale — warehousing! 

INSTITUTIONAL ( public - semi public ) 



MtErUCO IY I* CirY OF GAINF.SVII.li 
UNDt« CONTRACT WITH THl FLO* IDA 
0tVtlO»M£NI COMMISSION. IMF. Ftlf- 
Af ATI ON OHHSMAf WASFINANCIO IN 
FA*T THIOUCH AN l*»AN PLANNING 
GIANT FIOM THCOtFAltMf NT Of MOW- 
ING AND UK KAN MVELO»M(Nt, UNOa 
IHEFtOVlSIONS OFHCHON 7CI Of IHt 
HOUSING ACT Of I'M. *S AMtNKO. 

-^rTTTTTTTW 

NORTH 



-51- 



It is recommended that the frontage on North Main Street north of North 
2nd Avenue to North 8th Avenue continue to function as an office sales and 
service district. It is recommended that in the event of redevelopment of the 
area west of Main additional depth be secured for the Main Street frontage to 
facilitate the eventuality of eliminating on-street parking on Main Street. The 
types of uses recommended for this area are generally low intensity land users 
requiring only a limited number of ingress and egress points to handle a low 
volume of traffic. This frontage represents a step down of land use between the 
parking loop area and the Gainesville Shopping Center area just to the north. 

It is recommended that the frontage on NE 1st Street continue to develop 
for office uses to complement the services and activities now characteristic of 
the Central Business District. Under no circumstances should retail sales in- 
trude into this predominantly office area. Northeast 1st Street is designated 
only as a minor street in the Proposed Street Classification System for the 
Gainesville Area and as such is not designed to handle large volumes of 
"through" traffic. 

The area bounded by west 3rd and 6th Streets and North 3rd Avenue and 
South 2nd Avenue should continue as the location of a mixture of wholesaling, 
warehousing, transportation, and auto sales and service uses. These uses are 
not pedestrian oriented and represent a "step down" in land use intensity 
from the parking loop - oriented shops and offices to future residential redev- 
elopment areas to the north. 

The large area designated for offices immediately south of the afore- 
mentioned area represents a continuation of the office trend already present 
in this area. The proposed southerly extension of SW 6th Street will make 
this general area more easily accessible from other areas of Gainesville. 
This office area provides a land use intensity buffer between the more in- 
tensely used retail areas to the north and east and the proposed residential 
redevelopment area immediately south. 

It is recommended that the frontage along south Main Street continue 
development and act as an expansion of Central Business District oriented 
offices, wholesaling and warehousing, with a gradual trend toward light in- 
dustrial uses adjacent to the South Main Street Industrial Park on the east 
side of Main Street. These land uses represent a "stepping down" in in- 
tensity away from the parking loop area allowing South Main Street to carry 
"through traffic" more easily to and from major concentrations of land uses. 
The proposed multiple family area abutting the Main Street commercial 
frontage on the west acts as a buffer betv/een the Main Street uses and the 
residential area farther to the west. Apartment development is recommended 
for the designated areas immediately east and south of the Gainesville Sun 
newspaper plant. These areas front on minor streets which would not allow 



-52- 



commercial development or a continuation of warehousing without substantial 
improvements to the existing streets. In addition to providing a "step down" 
of intensity away from the South Main Street frontage, they provide a feasible 
reuse of this land when redevelopment of the marginal structures is necessary. 

Serious consideration has been given in recent months to the possibility of 
building a municipal Civic Center, which could be a tremendous asset to a 
growing city such as Gainesville. To date, no feasibility study has been com- 
pleted with recommendations for the location of such a site. It is recommended, 
if a Downtown location were specified in such a study, that consideration be 
given to redeveloping the area generally east of the Municipal Building - Library 
complex bounded by University and north 3rd Avenues and east 3rd Street and 
the Boulevard. This site would blend in well, and tie together, the surrounding 
governmental activities and Central Business District uses. It is well located 
with respect to the existing and proposed transportation links and with the area's 
largest employer and source of most large scale entertainment and educational 
activities, the University of Florida. Such a Civic Center complex could stimu- 
late Downtown redevelopment and make the Central Business District area a 
more fitting example of the progress being made in the "University City". 

It is recommended that the offices fronting on NE 1st Street and the pub- 
licly designated land in the northeast quadrant of the Central Business District 
be buffered from the very substantial single family areas in the near northeast 
by medium density apartment developments. Much of this area is presently 
developed with such apartments and single family dwellings converted to apart- 
ments. 

The residential area in the near northwest quadrant west of West 1st 
Street and north of NW 3rd Avenue is recommended for redevelopment. Pre- 
sently, this area is predominantly occupied by substandard dwellings. It is 
recommended that redevelopment for residential re-use be considered in the 
near future . 



-53- 



Unplanned Commercial Districts 

Unplanned commercial districts have developed along most of Gainesville's major 
thoroughfares. The pace at which this type of development is occurring has accelerated 
in the past decade. With expected improvements to many of the major thoroughfares, 
the pressure exerted for this type of development can be expected to continue. 

Strip commercial development as was mentioned before, effects large areas of 
abutting and nearby land uses. In the following map, seventeen commercial districts 
are delineated, most of which include at least one planned shopping center. Two 
"strip" maps of each individual district have been prepared. The first map shows 
existing land uses, while the second map shows recommended future development 
and/or redevelopment of each area. 



f** 



■I 



III 



Ma 



-55- 



|, NW 13th Street and 6t h 5trooV, North c. r 39th Avenue 
Existing 

. This area is characterized by a predominance o r mobile heme sales generally north 
of NW 45th Avenue. The area to the south is mostly mixed residential with some local 
convenience sales and services on the major thorough", ' „ A large auto sales and ser- 
vice center is also located along NW 13th Street. 

Future 

The area north from NW 45th Avenue should continue to cater to mobile home sales 
and services because of the fine transportation links and the availability of large expanses 
of vacant land. This eventuality would facilitate comparison shopping for mobile 
homes and would group similar and compatible commercial uses, a goal stated previously. 
In addition, this sales area is removed from any extensive residential development. The 
NW 13th Street at NW 39th Avenue intersection should continue to function as a local 
convenience commercial area. On the east side of NW 13th Street north and south from 
NW 39th Avenue, it is recommended that a "stepping down" of intensities from retail 
to office and apartments be implemented. This practice will tend to perpetuate the in- 
tersection's functional role as a traffic carrier while discouraging the needless "hep- 
skotching" of commercial away from a major intersection. The residential area surrounding 
the auto dealer on NW 13th Street is recommended to be developed as single family because 
of the predominance of existing single family. The frontage south of the auto dealer is 
recommended to develop for offices to NW 39th Avenue. The area west of this frontage, 
already predominantly single family, should continue as such. Although the area in the 
southwest quadrant abuts a busy intersection, replatting with lots backing on NW 13th 
Street and NW 39th Avenue should make this land acceptable for single family use. 

The area bounded by NW 13th and 6th Streets and NW 39th and 42nd Avenues, al- 
ready is predominantly mixed with single family, duplex, and quadraplex developments, 
and it is recommended to continue as such. The vacant parcels surrounding the service 
station on the corner of NW 13th Street at 42nd Avenue should be utilized for duplex 
development as well as the frontage just north to provide a bu c fer to the existing abut- 
ting single family area which should be preserved. 

It is recommended that the triangular shaped area of land north of NW 39th Avenue 
east of NW 6th Street to the railroad continue development as it has in the past. That is, 
the upper portion of this area should be utilized for v/arehousing, wholesaling, and very 
light industry. The lower portion is recommended for development of low density (8 Units 
per acre) apartments to blend in with existing nearby apartments and single family uses. 
This area is presently subdivided into parcels of varying shapes and sizes with many of the 
parcels not being serviced by streets. It is recommended that the property owners in this 
area reach a cooperative agreement in an effort to redevelop and/or replat their land. 



-56- 




SINGLE FAM I LY , [sTf/d.| single family - duplex 



□ 




MULTIPLE FAMILY 



OFFICES 



L.D ] LOW I NSITV, IM.D.J MED. DENSITY, 



* I H.D.I HIGH L NSITY , [KATh] MOBILE HOME 



( LEGEND APPLIES TO REMAINING STRIP MAPS) 



-57- 




COMMERCIAL 



INDUSTRIAL, r w./w^ wholesale - warehousing 



V c r< ~yi INSTITUTIONAL (public-semi public), [p] parking 

(i-EGEISID APPLIES TO REMAINING STRIP MAPS) 



-58- 



2. NW 13th Street (Gainesville Mall Area) 
Existing 

This is a regional-serving retail, entertainment, and service complex. 
The new Gainesville Mall is the largest of the retailing centers while two 
other retailing complexes are located on opposite corners. Traffic congestion 
at the intersection of NW 13th Street and 23rd Boulevard has multiplied with 
recent commercial developments. 

Future 

Additional commercial development east of the Gainesville Mall is 
proposed, however, necessary precautions should be taken to preserve the 
traffic carrying potential of this busy area. A "stepping down" of inten- 
sity away from the intersection eastward on 23rd Boulevard is presently 
apparent and recommended to continue in the plan. 

The southeast corner of this intersection is presently vacant. It is 
recommended that a limited intensity retail outlet utilize the corner with 
office uses "stepping down" away from the corner as buffers. This will 
lessen congestion at this intersection. 

A "stepping down" of intensity in the blocks north of the Mall area 
on both sides of NW 13th Street is shown. Offices and low density apart- 
ments are indicated. These uses provide a compatible low intensity re- 
lief to the existing residential development. A buffer of low density 
apartments is recommended west of Fields Plaza with a natural buffer re- 
commended for the area between the Mall and Hogtown Creeko A small 
buffer of low density apartments could be considered as a substitute in 
this area where there is enough land, but should not cross the natural 
boundry created by the creek. 



r 




EXISTING 



PROPOSED 



-60- 



NW 13th Street - NW 8th Avenue to NW 22nd Avenue 
Existing 

This strip area running along NW 13th Street is a mixed regional 
office and local convenience district with scattered residential uses. 
Several local convenience retail activities have grouped around the 
intersection of NW 13th Street and 16th Avenue. 

Future 

There is an apparent "stepping down" of intensity along NW 13th 
Street north of NW 16th Avenue away from both 16th Avenue and 23rd 
Boulevard. It is recommended that this pattern be continued on exist- 
ing vacant parcels in this area because of the presence of the high school 
and the existing traffic congestion caused by automotive turning move- 
ments along this section of NW 13th Street. 

The existing residential development along 16th Avenue is substantial 
and should be protected against encroaching commercial. It is recom- 
mended that no further rezoning from residential uses to commercial uses 
be approved on NW 16th Avenue west of the intersection. Any such 
rezoning would provide an inroad to strip commercial development. 

The frontage along NW 13th Street south of 16th Avenue is being 
utilized to a large degree for offices. The offices are well landscaped 
and blend well with nearby residential areas. It is therefore recom- 
mended that this use be continued. 

Ft is recommenced that the vacaitf parcel west of the Villa Ravine 
apartments on NW 16th Avenus be developed for low density apart- 
ment development as a step down to the nearby single family devel- 
opments. This type of development would blend well with the exist- 
ing topography and other physiographic features of this parcel. 




EXISTING 



PROPOSED 



-62- 



NW 13th Street - University Avenue to NW 8th Avenue 
Existing 

This commercial area is a mixed non-local retail strip with local conven- 
ience outlets catering mainly to a University - clientele. The commercial 
district is flanked on the east by a dilapidated high density residential area 
and on the west by an area of student occupied multiple family residences. 

Future 

It is of paramount importance to decrease the obvious detrimental ef- 
fects this commercial strip is having upon the surrounding residential uses. 
Nearly all land fronting on NW 13th Street in this area has been developed, 
therefore redevelopment, at higher intensities, can be expected in the 
future. Stepping down of intensities from commercial to apartments to 
single family is depicted going east and west from NW 13th Street. Recom- 
mendations regarding street closings and off-street parking are illustrated in 
the future land use plan. 

It is recommended that the vacant frontage along NW 13th Street just 
south of NW 8th Avenue be developed commercially. The existing steep 
slopes on these parcels, however, present some problems for development. 
It is recommended that the lower level, with limited 8th Avenue frontage 
be developed for offices as a "stepping down" of intensity away from 
13th Street. It is also strongly recommended that no retail activities in- 
trude into the office - oriented area north of NW 8th Avenue. The 8th 
Avenue overpass and the different land use characteristics north of 8th 
Avenue are logical physical and social bases for limiting retail activities 
south of 8th Avenue, not to mention the necessity of preventing further 
congestion of 13th Street which would result from the more intensive com- 
mercial uses. 




EXISTING 



PROPOSED 



-64- 



5. West Univ ersity Avenue - 6th Street to 13th Street 

Pf!T1 h ^>::^ 



UNI VERSITY 
OF 
KI.OR I DA 




spin mw^wmjTi w 

EXISTING 



Existing 

This commercial district is a mixed student - oriented, general commercial and office 
area. Besides containing Santa Fe Junior College, such other tenants as a bank, several 
offices, retail clothing outlets, drug stores, restaurants, service stations, and other ser- 
vice outlets have located here. The commercial strip is surrounded on the north and south 
by a mixture of student - oriented multi - family dwellings and single family homes, with 
a medical district farther south. 




Future 



PROPOSED 

It would be desirable, if possible, to change the character of this area to lesser 
intensive uses, such as offices. This is the major east-west traffic artery in the City, 
linking the two heaviest activity centers - the University and the Central Business District. 
The present traffic congestion on this artery will undoubtedly continue, which may well 
cause the area to suffer from competition from other more accessible commercial areas. 
Possible exclusion of on-street parking on University Avenue will probably be necessary 
to relieve congestion and to increase capacity of the street. Some redevelopment including 
street closings and provisions for off-street parking related to these businesses will be neces- 
sary to stimulate a better utilization of the area and bring economic stability to the area. 
The future land use plan illustrates some improvements and recommended land use relation- 
ships for this area which will eliminate much of the traffic congestion on University Avenue 
a major east-west thoroughfare. 




-65- 
EXISTING 

; . , rn r — r — r nw 3 rd ave. nc*r ~ 



WEST UNIVERSITY 



ir 



UNIVERSITY 
OF 

Florida 




AVENUE 



West University Avenue - West 13th Street to West 19th Street 
Existing 

This commercial area is almost wholly oriented toward University student patronage 
A wide variety of local convenience services and goods are offered, ranging from a 
convenience grocery store to a branch post office. The area immediately north to NW 
5th Avenue is predominantly student oriented - multiple family residential in character. 



Future 




N W 3RD lSS/l 
















WEST UNIVERSITY AVENU 



UN I VERSIT Y 
OF 
FlOR I DA 



PROPOSED 



It is strongly recommended that under no circumstances should additional commercial 
uses be permitted beyond the University Avenue frontages because the existing street 
network in the residential area north of University Avenue is insufficient to handle non- 
residential traffic, and commercial uses unquestionably have a blighting influence on 
residential uses. If additional land should become available it should be utilized for 
off-street parking as this is a major problem in the area now. Evidence has shown that 
students, as well as most other people, use their cars even if the store is within easy 
walking distance. Eventually the existing parking I es on University Avenue in this 
area will, out of necessity, be required for moving c Jitional traffic volumes and/or 
turning lanes. Future development should be of a character to complement the goods 
and services offered by the University, as well as, the physical make-up of the University 
structure . 



-66- 




SW 2ND AVE 

V/ 






— 


ml 






ii « i 




' IF I 






rri nmr — i 




EXISTING 



PROPOSED 



7. Southwest Medical District (Alachua General Hospital) 
Existing 

This area represents a large concentration of medical services. There are 
several vacant parcels of land available for office expansions. University - 
oriented apartment developments abut the medical area both to the west and 
south . 

Future 

The planned expansion of the Alachua General Hospital at its existing 
site will strengthen and solidify the district. The continued evolution of this 
area into a medical district could be encouraged. This grouping of similar and 
compatible uses is one of the principles stated previously. In addition, the planned 
extension of SW 6th Street south to SW 16th Avenue should also enhance the area 
by providing better access. 



-67- 



8. SW 13th Street - Archer Road to Bivens Arm 
Existing 

This area has developed as a highway oriented strip commercial district. 
It also serves the daily convenience needs of a student - oriented population, 
but largely serves a tourist and transient segment with restaurants and motel 
accommodations. The commercial strip is flanked by high density apartments 
along SW 16th Avenue, near Biven's Arm and on the west side of SW 13th 
Street. There are fine single family residential areas abutting the apartments 
and commercial areas in several instances. 

Future 

A land use plan already adopted for this district designates the area im- 
mediately south of Archer Road and the Medical Center as an office center 
complementing and buffering the existing residential uses in the area. This use 
would act as a "step down" in intensity from the high density apartments a- 
butting on the south, while providing land for compatible uses adjacent to 
the existing University and Veterans medical complexes on the west and north. 

The proposed low density (8 units/acre) apartment land use in the south- 
west quadrant of the SW 13th Street and Archer Road intersection represents 
a step down in intensity from commercial on the south to a very busy and 
critical intersection. This use would also be a continuation of the present 
single family - low density apartment mix. 

South of 16th Avenue on the west side of 13th Street the frontage is pre- 
dominantly developed commercially with high density apartments to the west. 
It is recommended that east-west access to this area be improved as designated 
on the adopted SW 13th Street Land Use Plan. The land just south of the Holi- 
day Inn on SW 14th Street is recommended for development into medium density 
apartments which is stepping down from the high density areas to the north there- 
by decreasing potential traffic congestion in the area. This area will likely be 
"land-locked" by commercial uses in the future. 




EXISTING 



PROPOSED 



-69- 



The large parcel of land along the west side of SW 13th Street just 
above Biven 's Arm is designated for commercial uses. The land is pre- 
sently zoned shopping center (SC). This frontage, through site plan ap- 
proval, should be developed with a limited number of access points via 
service roads. This is necessary to insure this area of SW 13th Street 
against the congestion now apparent in the SW 13th Street at 16th Avenue 
area. It is recommended that the land just west of this area be devel- 
oped for medium density apartments because of the demand for apart- 
ments in this general area and because of the natural lakeside setting 
forming a buffer between such a development and the single family resi- 
dential south and west of the lake. 

It is recommended that the large parcel of land next to Audubon 
Park fronting on SW 13th Street and abutting Seaboard Airline Railroad 
tracks be developed for low density residential use. Its proximity to a 
fine single family residential area, as well as, the many problems of cir- 
culation to and from the parcel, dictate a low intensity use. Its close 
proximity to the SW 9th Road and SW 13th Street intersection and site 
distance problems from the railroad overpass also prohibits a high traffic 
volume use. The aforementioned parcel together with the large parcel 
directly south, which is shown for office use, represent a "stepping down" 
of intensity in a very high traffic volume and congested SW 13th Street 
area. 

The recently adopted SW 13th Street Land Use Plan shows the re- 
maining frontage on the east side of 13th Street for commercial uses to 
a point just south of SW 25th Place. Medium density apartment devel- 
opment is indicated just above Biven's Arm. This is a "stepping down" 
of use from the commercial just to the north. A "stepping down" with 
low density multiple family from SW 13th Street east to the single family 
Kirkwood area is recommended for the area where medium high density 
multiple family would otherwise abut the single family residential area. 
In addition several existing natural buffers around the single family are 
retained. 



-70- 



NW 6th Street - 19th Lane to 30th Avenue 
Existing 

This is a scattered commercial area with some limited non- local 
outlets of wholesale vegteable and meats, lumber, offices, etc. There 
is a secondary local convenience area near NW 28th Avenue. This 
strip development is surrounded predominantly by a mixture of single 
family dwellings with a mixture of apartments in some areas. 

Future 

It is recommended that only limited retail expansion be permitted 
in this area because of the close proximity of several large retail con- 
centrations. As shown on the plan, the retail concentration at the 
corner of NW 6th Street and 23rd Boulevard should be buffered from 
existing single family areas by apartments and offices. This is a stepping 
down in use and helps to relieve traffic congestion at the intersection 
and forms a better transition to the single family developments. 

Low density multiple family is proposed along NW 6th Street from 
29th Avenue to 32nd Avenue. Some of this frontage has already been 
developed as such. A mixture of single family andduplex development 
is recommended in the areas shown which either abut commercial uses or 
apartments. This mixture has been proposed only in those areas where 
sufficient vacant land exist and where the potential for additional sin- 
gle family residences has waned. 

The southeast quadrant of the NW 6th Street and 23rd Boulevard 
intersection presently has substantial apartment development. It is 
recommended that this development be encouraged because of surrounding 
non-residential land use on three of four sides. 

The southwest quadrant should remain basically single family. The 
existing commercial on the southwest corner should be buffered from sin- 
gle family by the recommended office and apartment uses as shown. 




EXISTING 



PROPOSED 



-72- 



10. NW 6th Street - 12th Avenue to 19th Lane 
Existing 

This commercial development has some limited community serving business 
with auto - oriented and local convenience stores as major drawing points. There 
is also a supermarket near the intersection of NW 6th Street on 16th Avenue. This 
intersection is surrounded by a mixture of single family and apartment dwallings. 

Future 

The plan shows a "stepping down" of intensity of uses away from the inter- 
section. This practice not only protects the intersection from needless congestion 
and future capital expenditure for improvements but serves as a buffer to exist- 
ing single family residences fronting on NW 6th Street and NW 16th Avenue. 

The commercial activities in the northwest quadrant of NW 16th Avenue at 
6th Street are buffered from single family by low density apartments. A mix- 
ture of single family - duplex development is recommended as shown because 
of the existing development and because of the number of vacant parcels 
on which new single family development is unlikely. A buffer of offices are 
recommended on the west side of 6th Street north of the commercial at 16th Ave- 
nue to provide a "stepping down" in intensity away from the intersection. 

A large medium density apartment development exists north and east of this 
intersection, filling in a area between NW 6th Street and the elementary school. 
It is recommended that the remaining parcels in this area are developed in a simi- 
lar manner. 

The limited commercial development in the southeast quadrant of this inter- 
section is presently surrounded by single family dwellings. The apartment trend 
in this area should be continued in the redevelopment of these areas, at least 
over to the more solidly developed residential east of 2nd Street 

The frontage on NW 6th Street in the southwest quadrant is partially utilized 
for offices. It is recommended that the areas shown continue to develop for office 
uses. The interior area of this quadrant is basically single family in character 
and should be encouraged to remain as such. 



-74- 



11. NW 8th Avenue - NW 2nd Street to NW 6th Street 
Existing 

This area contains a undefinable mixture of commercial uses - neighborhood 
to regional in function,. Many of the businesses are poorly buffered from surround- 
ing residential areas contributing to residential blight. The traffic carrying capa- 
city of NW 8th Avenue has been severely limited by uncontrolled access in this 
area. Active planning for the widening of 8th Avenue is underway. 

Future 

It is recommended that every effort be made to improve traffic and off- 
street parking in conjunction with the widening of 8th Avenue between Main 
Street and NW 6th Street. 

The large area recommended for wholesaling is presently partially devel- 
oped as such. It is felt that a continuation and expansion of these uses is 
desirable to serve the needs of the Gainesville Shopping Center and abutting 
Central Business District. The continuation of this trend would also tend to 
eliminate further retail expansion in the area/helping to insure the economic 
stability of both the Gainesville Shopping Center and the Central Business 
District. 

Redevelopment will be necessary because of the blighted conditions south 
of the 8th Avenue frontage. A stepping down of intensity from commercial on 
the north side of 8th Avenue to office or multiple family along the south side 
of 8th Avenue is recommended as a buffer to the lower density residential areas 
to the south when such redevelopment occurs. The Gainesville Police Depart- 
ment will utilize the triangular area between the railroad and NW 6th Street. 

Low density apartments are recommended as a buffer between the proposed 
warehousing district on the north side of NW 10th Avenue and the single family 
areas to the north and west. A "stepping down" from commercial uses on the 
northeast corner of NW 6th Street and 8th Avenue to offices and/or low density 
apartments is also proposed. 



-76- 



North Main Street - 16th Avenue to 23rd Boulevard 
Existing 

Substantial commercial development has occurred at the 16th Avenue and 
23rd Boulevard intersections with North Main Street. Most of this development 
has been of a regional - serving narjre: auto sales and services, an office, 
etc., although local convenience centers exist near the corners, onboth 16th 
Avenue and 23rd Boulevard . 

Future 

The predominant trend in the intervening area on Main Street from a point 
south of 16th Avenue north to 23rd Boulevard has been toward auto sales and 
services. These large land users require f2wer ingress and egress points onto 
major streets than many other uses. It is recommended that auto uses continue 
to locate in this area to provide a concentration or grouping of similar and 
compatible uses, a principle stated previously. Development as such would make 
comparison shopping for automobiles much less difficult, while residents would 
more readily associate auto sales and services with this area. 

While not specifically Main Street frontage, the extension of NE 2nd 
Street is expected to stimulate wholesaling and warehousing developments in 
the area immediately east of the Main Street frontage. A wide dedicated 
buffer strip has been provided between the single family area abutting on the 
east and this wholesaling - warehousing area. 

The recommended stepping down of intensities along 16th and 23rd Avenues 
away from Main Street is necessary to preserve the traffic handling capacities 
of these two intersections, while insuring against the possible continuation of 
strip commercial uses into the surrounding residential areas. On 16th Avenue the 
Northeast Park and the church and school provide logical easterly limits to com- 
mercial expansion along this thoroughfare. The Sidney Lanier Elementary School 
and the petroleum dealership on 16th Avenue west of Main Street provide logical 
barriers to commercial uses and buffers to adjacent residential uses. 

On the south side frontage of 23rd Avenue,- offices are recommended to 
provide a buffer east of Main Street between the commercial uses on Main 
Street and the residential development to the east. A similar buffer should 
also be provided on the north side. On the west side of MainSfcieet, the 
commercial development adjoins an existing and proposed industrial district. 



-77- 

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EXISTING 



PROPOSED 



-78- 



13. North Main Street - 7th Avenue to 16th Avenue 
Existing 

This area, together with the Gainesville Shopping Center, functions 
primarily as a sub-regional commercial district. In addition it provides a 
wide range of local convenience goods and services. The strip area north 
and east of the Gainesville Shopping Center is a continuation of the auto 
sales and service trend north on Main Street. Considerable traffic con- 
gestion exists due to numerous access points onto Main Street in this area. 

Future 

It is recommended that there be no further intensification of com- 
mercial activities because of the close proximity of the Central Business 
District. The single family area immediately northwest of the Gainesville 
Shopping Center should remain as such. No inroads of apartments have 
occurred here, but low density apartments are recommended as a buffer 
between the wholesaling and single family area. 

Low density apartments are recommended east of North Main Street 
as a buffer between the commercial frontage and single family area to 
the east. The realignment of NE 2nd Street and the existing Northeast 
Park will provide for a logical termination of commercial uses along NE 
16th Avenue. 

The high rise apartment building for the elderly, together with the 
recommended low density apartments abutting on the north, will provide a 
buffer between the existing commercial and the single family residential 
area to the east. Wholesaling/warehousing uses are recommended west of 
Main between 8th and 10th Avenues except for the development commer- 
cial along the frontage at these intersections. This would be a continuation 
of the trend already established in this and the adjoining area to the west, 
which was discussed earlier. 




EXISTING 



PROPOSED 



-80- 



14. Waldo Road - NE 13th Avenue to NE 23rd Boulevard 
Existing 

This area has a conglomeration of unrelated commercial activities ranging 
from local convenience to regional services. Improvements to Waldo Road 
and NE 23rd Boulevard are presently underway. The widening of Waldo Road 
has necessitated the acquisition of much marginal frontage and has provided 
the opportunity for the orderly redevelopment of the frontage. 

Future 

It is recommended that commercial development be limited to Waldo 
Road at the 16th Avenue and 23rd Boulevard intersections, and that the 
area fronting on Waldo Road between 16th Avenue and 23rd Boulevard be 
developed as low density apartments as shown. This would prevent commercial 
uses from developing with their rear fronting the existing apartment uses, 
while providing a stepping down of intensities from the intersections. The 
dwellings should "back lot" on Waldo Road, fronting existing and proposed 
apartments and single family on NE 17th Way. 

In the event that the mobile home park on 23rd Boulevard is "phased 
out", it is recommended that this area be used for a continuation of ware- 
housing because the irregularly shaped mobile home park is presently out 
of context with the existing and proposed land uses for this area,, The scattered 
commercial along 23rd Boulevard west of Waldo Road should be eliminated. 
Studies have shown that most industrial firms do not benefit by the close proxi- 
mity of high traffic volume commercial enterprises and vice versa. 

The area directly north of Citizen's Field on Waldo Road should continue 
as a mobile home park with light industry and/or warehousing, as shown, 
north of the park. The public and semi-public uses provide a buffer to the 
mobile home park to the south. A low density multi-family buffer is recom- 
mended on the south side of 16th Avenue between the commercial uses and the 
existing single family residential farther west on 16th Avenue. 



-82- 




EXISTING 



. NE 8th Avenue - East of Waldo Road 
Existing 

This area contains a newly completed, planned local convenience center 
plus several scattered, marginal commercial outlets. Many of the dwellings in 
this area are dilapidated while one large church - sponsored, low-rent housing 
complex has recently been constructed. 



-83- 






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* Vi-i- 






Future 



PROPOSED 



It is recommended that all scattered commercial uses east of NE 17th 
Terrace be phased out. The commercial uses in this area are dilapidated and 
incompatible with surrounding residential uses. The remaining commercial 
frontage should be bolstered by the addition of off- street parking as shown 
in the plan. The existing warehousing and light industry north along the 
railroad, some of which is relatively new, provides a basis for a continuation 
of this usage. 

Every effort should be made to redevelop the areas north and south of 
NE 8th Avenue for residential purposes. The large area between NE 10th 
Avenue and the Sunland Training Center is presently being subdivided for 
new single family use. 



-84- 



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EXISTING 



16. East University Avenue Near Waldo Road 
Existing 

This commercial area contains several local convenience goods and service 
outlets, but also caters to a larger regional market in many instances. The 
surrounding residential area is marginal and has been selected as a potential 
target area for a Federally assisted Concentrated Code Enforcement Program. 



-85- 




Future 

There is a considerable amount of vacant land in this area. It is recommended 
that some of this land be used for off-street parking. The recommended closing of 
SE 12th and 14th Streets on the southside of University Avenue will provide additional 
room for parking and commercial redevelopment in this area. 

The possible relocation of the railroad from West 6th Street to the Waldo Road 
area may require additional freight terminal space in this area. It is recommended 
that such expansion, if needed, be localized in the triangular area on the north- 
east corner of the intersection of Waldo Road and University Avenue. The commer- 
cial development at the intersection of South Waldo Road and SE 4th Avenue should 
be buffered from the existing surrounding single family areas by low density apart- 
ments. 



-86- 



Hawthorne Road - University Avenue to SE 24th Street 
Existing 

This commercial area contains scattered commercial uses ranging from 
local convenience outlets to regional businesses. Many of the businesses are 
of a non-center character. There are tentative plans for improving this thor- 
oughfare . 

Future 

It is of paramount importance to existing and future commercial devel- 
opment to provide for good paved off-street parking areas which are well 
landscaped. It is recommended that there be some relief in the intensity 
of land use and traffic movements along Hawthorne Road so that the street 
can function as a thoroughfare carrying "through" traffic. 

The existing commercial uses on the south side of Hawthorne Road near 
SE 3rd Avenue should be buffered from single family uses by low density multi- 
ple family uses. It is also recommended that the frontage east of the nursery 
be used for apartments to provide relief from the higher intensity commercial 
uses on either side and to allow for better traffic movements in this area. 

The future development of the north side of Hawthorne Road will be 
shaped by the two large existing land users: the School Board and the drive- 
in theater. It is recommended that the frontage west of the school property be 
used for offices and low traffic generating commercial in order to allow the 
intersections of Hawthorne Road and University Avenue and 15th Street to 
function properly. 

The frontage immediately east of the school property is recommended for 
office use. Low density multiple family is recommended on the frontage be- 
tween the drive-in theater and the office frontage next to the school property. 
This is similar and compatible to the uses recommended across the street. Sin- 
gle family uses, already the predominant use away from the frontages on Haw- 
thorne Road, should be encouraged through sound street and utility develop- 
ment. 



-88- 



Planned Shopping Centers 

During the rapidly growing past decade, shopping centers have located some- 
what prematurely and off-center to their market areas. Several large centers have 
grouped around two or three major intersections, causing serious traffic problems 
resulting in increased taxpayer outlays for community facilities improvements in 
and around these areas. 

Several new shopping centers have been developed with a seemingly indif- 
ferent attitude toward proper landscaping and buffering from adjacent land uses. 
Large expanses of off-street parking have been left totally open to the public 
eye. There has been a lack of pedestrian - oriented open space and amenities. 
Most existing planned centers have been designed with the stores in a linear 
orientation. Shops are continuous along several hundred feet of sidewalks, making 
comparison shopping difficult. Auto transportation within the center for compari- 
son shopping is a common, however unsafe, occurrence. 

The incorporation of the following recommendations for the development of 
future shopping centers would do much to encourage the type of healthy compari- 
son shopping centers that Gainesville will require to keep the City young and 
vibrant. 

New Shopping Center Justification Through a Market Analysis 

Future development of new shopping centers in the Gainesville Urban Area 
should be based upon proof that the need and demand for it exists. The deter- 
mination of a proposed shopping center's likely success or failure and its initial 
and ultimate size is a necessity to insure the investment of the owner and future 
tenants. The purpose of the market analysis is two-fold: 

1 . To test the market area of the proposed shopping center to determine 
whether a center could be justified now; and 

2. If justified, to size the center in terms of square footage, land area, 
type and size of stores. 

The market analysis requires the following steps: 

1 . Determination of the trade area of the proposed shopping center; 

2. Determination of the number of families now living in the trade area 
and those estimated to be added to the area over an established period 
of time; 



3. Determination of the income of the families living in the trade area; 



-89- 



4. Total family income for the trade area must be reduced to expendable 
income for shopping center-type goods and services; 

5. The trade area must then be analyzed in terms of competition; and 

6. The proposed center must be analyzed in terms of type an d size of 
stores and volume of business. 



The market analysis is a necessary pre-requisite for shopping center justification 
because a new center cannot create new buying power. It can only attract cus- 
tomers from existing centers and districts and/or capture the increase in shopping 
center-type expenditures through population growth in its market area. 

Time Limit on Site Plan Approval 

Presently, site plan approval of a proposed shopping center is effective for 
an indefinite length of time. The ownership of the land and the architectural 
style may change several times over a period of years before the center is actu- 
ally built. Ordinance changes do not retroactively affect past site plan approval 
requirements. For example, a site plan approved ten years ago requiring a 
parking to building ratio of 2:1 cannot be compelled to meet the existing ratio 
of 3:1 . Other changes in technology often render past site plan requirements 
outdated or inadequate. 

A reasonable time limit for shopping center site plan implementation should 
be set. This specification would not only insure the contemporary adequacy of 
the development and its ultimate success and longevity, but it would likely lessen 
the chance of over-speculation in areas already adequately served commercially. 

The site plan time limit together with market analysis requirements will tend 
to stem the tide of over-speculation and over competition, resulting in unneces- 
sary groupings of individual shopping centers and commercial districts in a 
given trade area. 

Off- Street Parking and Landscaping 

The adoption of a minimum off-street parking landscape ordinance would 
do much to enhance and preserve existing and future commercial developments. 
The City Plan Board is presently working to adopt such an ordinance. 

Market Analysis for Other Commercial Use Groups 

The market analysis field has been extended to land uses other than shopping 
centers. The market analyst's work may involve the study of a complete range 
of uses including the location and justification of such varied uses as drive - in 



-90- 



theatres, gas stations, auto dealer, and lumber yards. The use of market analyses 
is also becoming more and more prevalent bacause investment companies require 
that a market analysis be made to justify their investment of risk capital . 

Even though the requirement of a market analysis may be limited to shopping 
centers initially, extreme care should be used in evaluating requests for zoning of 
other use groups. As soon as practical, the requirements should be extended to 
all commercial use groups. In the meantime, applicants for zoning should have 
sufficient evidence of a need for the development of the particular use applied 
for. 

The market analyst should work closely with the planning staff to insure the 
proper correlation of the market area of proposed centers and districts with the 
market areas of existing shopping centers and districts. If a proper correlation 
is not achieved, unnecessary displacement of existing or proposed commercial 
uses may result. 

Existing Planned Shopping Centers 

The following illustration shows all existing planned shopping centers. Each 
center has a number corresponding to the following text material pertaining to each 
planned shopping center. 



-92- 



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-93- 



Local Convenience Centers 

1. NW 1 6th Avenue at Millhopper Road 
Existing 

This development is presently a local convenience center with a convenience 
grocery store as its major tenant. It is located in a large vacant parcel of land 
zoned shopping center, the remaining portion of which is presently being consi- 
dered as a hospital site. 

Future 

This area has many of the characteristics desirable for the location of a neigh- 
borhood level shopping center. It is central to a large developing residential area, 
which is not now conveniently served by such a center. It is also at the intersec- 
tion of two major streets which service the residential area. At the same time, it 
is far enough away for other neighborhood centers so as not to detract from their 
service area. Therefore, it is recommended that in the event the hospital does not 
acquire the shopping center site that it be considered for development. However, 
the size is far in excess of what would be needed and alternative uses, perhaps a 
buffer of low density apartments could be considered. If the hospital does develop, 
consideration should be given to an alternative site in this general area. 

2. State Road 26 - Newberry Road 
Existing 

This development is presently a planned local convenience center which is 
partially vacant. A convenience grocery store is the major tenant. 

Future 

It is recommended that until the vacant floor space is utilized no expansion 
of the convenience functions in this area take place. There is a likelihood that 
adjacent land will be developed to include offices. However, this center should 
remain as a local convenience center because of its peculiar location v/ith respect 
to the thoroughfares and because the existing and planned non-local centers in the 
area will more than adequately serve the non-local or comparison goods need of the 
people in this area of Gainesville. Presently, the center suffers from the fact that 
it is not really convenient to any substantial residential development, but the de- 
veloping apartment complex across the road will change this situation. 



-94- 



3. West University Avenue at 37th Street 
Existing 

This is a local convenience center containing a convenience grocery store, 
personal services and offices. 

Future 

This development should continue to serve a low intensity, local convenience 
function because of the proximity of the larger non-local commercial developments 
to the north and east and because of its limited access with respect to a complicated 
intersection. The presence of adjoining residential developments is also a reason 
for limiting the intensity of this center. 

4. Northwest Corner of West University Avenue at 34th Street 
Existing 

The growth of this center has been stimulated by the development of the larger 
adjoining centers. It functions basically as a local convenience center, although 
some tenants draw business from a much larger market area. The center is fully de- 
veloped and contains a meat store, a convenience grocery store, a restaurant, an 
office, a gas station, and other tenants. 

Future 

It is expected that this center will continue to serve basically a local conven- 
ience function. Because of serious traffic congestion in this area, it is recommended 
that ingress and egress points to off-street parking be reduced and landscaping incor- 
porated to buffer parking areas. If possible, it is recommended that a buffer be de- 
veloped behind this center to protect the existing residential area north of the creek. 

5. SW 34th Street at SW 20th Avenue 
Existing 

This recently opened local center has a convenience grocery store as its major 
tenant. It is strategically located to serve several mobile home parks in this area, 
and is buffered with offices on three sides. 

Future 

It is recommended that this center remain a local convenience center with some 
possible expansion of personal services in the future, as the need arises. However, 



-95- 



care should be taken i hot this renter not become the stimulus for strip commercial 
in this area . 

6. SW 34th Street at Archer R ood 
Existing 

The commercial development at this location presently serves a local conven- 
ience function with non-local businesses across t he street. There is vacant commer- 
cially zoned land across the street frcm the existing commercial development. 

Future 

This is a strategic intersection in the southwestern quadrant of the Urbnn Area. 
The surrounding area is rapidly developing in mobile homes and apartments. A 
neighborhood center with a supermarket could evolve near the existinn local con- 
venience function as this area develops. This area is reasonable for ihe location of 
such a center, but care should bo taken thnt it not expand beyond a neighboihoocl 
center because of the inadequacy of existing streets and its close proximity to the 
Westgate complex. 

7. NW 34th Street, Extended 
Existing 

This development is a local convenience center. There is a vast amount of 
adjacent land commercially zoned for possible future expansion. 

Future 

It is recommended that the local convenience center gradually evolve into a 
neighborhood center with a supermarket as the major tenant if sufficient residential 
development continues in this area. No larger center than a neighborhood is ad- 
vised, because it would not be centrally located to a larger service area, nor on 
a adequate street network. 

8. NW 13th Street Near 41st Avenue 
Existing 

This is a local convenience center serving a limited residential area. The 
surrounding land is mostly developed. 

Future 

It Is recommended that this center remain a local convenience function in keeping 



-96- 



with the general role of this commercial a»-ea as discussed in the 'strip commercial 
maps. Adequate landscaping is a recommended step for ihe improvement of its 
appearance . 

9 & 10. NW 13th Street at 16th Avenue 

Existing 

These centers are basically local convenience in nature even though they are 
located in a mixed commercial area. The center on the southwest corner is very 
complete and contains several tenants which serve a large market area. The center 
located on the northeast corner serves basically local convenience functions. 

Future 

These centers should be limited to local convenience sizes in order to lessen 
traffic congestion at this intersection as well as protect surrounding residential 
areas (see discussion in strip map number 3). 

11 & 12. NW 13th Street at 5th Avenue 

Existing 

These small centers contain convenience grocery stores and limited service 
uses. They serve basically the University - oriented population and the high den- 
sity residential areas to the east and west. 

Future 

No further retail expansion is recommended because these centers are located 
on a secondary street and expansion would result in a further intrusion into a resi- 
dential area. These centers will continue to serve a limited residential area. 

13. West University Avenue at 15th Street (Caroline Plaza) 

Existing 

This center serves a local convenience function to the University - oriented 
population. Off-street parking is provided but much of the business is of the 
walk in type. The center contains a non-prescription c*rug store, a laundromat, 
a barber shop and other services. 

Future 

This development should continue as a local convenience center with particular 
emphasis upon pedestrian traffic from the University. Thought should be given to 



-97- 



providing sufficient off-street parking as needed. Existing parking is inadequate 
both as to number of spaces and more particularly as to design or layout. Turning 
movements from University Avenue may have to be restricted in the future as they 
now sometimes present a serious traffic problem. 

14 & 15. SW 13th Street Near 16th Avenue 

Existing 

These are local convenience centers with a limited number of tenants in an 

area surrounded by predominantly non-local commercial uses. These centers serve 

mainly the high density student - oriented apartments nearby. 

Future 

These centers should remain local convenience in nature because of the al- 
ready congested condition of the area near this intersection and to continue to 
serve this particular need of the nearby apartment residents. 

16. SW 13th Street Near Williston Road 
Existing 

This development is a limited local convenience center with some reliance 
upon highway -oriented trade. 

Future 

Although there presently isn't enough residential development to support a 
shopping center, it is recommended that when sufficient residential development 
occurs in surrounding areas, there will be a need for either a neighborhood or 
community center with access to this intersection. 

17. NW 6th Street Near 40th Avenue 
Existing 

This development is presently a local convenience center with a convenience 
grocery store as its major tenant, but includes some non-local uses. 

Future 

There is room for possible expansion if needed to serve the local needs of the 
area. The general appearance of the center should be improved through proper 
landscaping and clean-up of scattered debris and future uses should be limited to 
local convenience uses. 



-98- 



18. SW 4th Avenue Near 3rd Street 
Existing 

This is a local convenience center, serving a business, medical, and high den- 
sity single family residential area. 

Future 

It is recommended that this center remain local convenience in character. Ex- 
pansion should be limited to personal service outlets or other low intensity commercial 
because the area is basically office and residential in character. It is not located 
on a major thoroughfare. 

19. 23rd Boulevard at North Main Street 
Existing 

This is a local convenience center with regional auto - oriented sales nearby. 
Future 

This center should remain a local convenience center. The addition of more re- 
tail sales near this intersection would jeopardize its traffic carrying capacity as well 
as lead to the spread of commercial down a basically residential thoroughfare. Future 
improvements made to the center should include limiting access and improving land- 
scaping around the parking area. (See strip map 12) 

20. 16th Avenue East of North Main Street 
Existing 

This is a local convenience center formed by two small clusters of stores. There 
are several non-local commercial outlets in the area with some in the center itself. 

Future 

It is recommended that this center continue to function as a local conven- 
ience center because any intensification by changeovers to more non-local serving uses 
would only add to the congestion in the area, as well as change the function of the 
center. 



-99- 



21. 16th Avenue at South Main Street 



Existing 

This is a local convenience center with a pizza rortaurant adjacent to it. The 
businesses cater primarily to University students livinq in l!.o surrounding cpartments. 
Another convenience grocery and take out restaurant has opened across the slice; •. 

Future 

Future expansion at this location should be encouraged to develop as a unified 
shopping center with one common area of off-street parking. It is anticipated that 
other convenience and personal service outlets will Iceaie here, but the general 
character of this center should remain local, convenience in nature, because a con- 
centration of more intense cc.mnorc ial user will undoubtably create serious congestion 
on 16th Avenue and would adversely effect the aparii.iciu development in ihe area. 

22. NE 8th Avenue at 15th Terrace 
Existing 

This is a newly constructed limited, local convenience center with a laundry 
and some personal services. Off-street parking is provided in contrast to nearby 
commercial outlets. 

Future 

It is recommended that this center remain local convenience in nature because 
of abutting residential uses and its location with respect to the existing thoroughfares. 
If the demand arises, this center could expand to provide more convenience goods and 
personal services. 

23. East University Avenue at 14th Street 
Existing 

This is a local convenience center oriented predominantly to auto - oriented 
customers. There are several other uses catering to a larger market area both in the 
center and on adjacent frontages. There is a striking lack of landscaping at this 
center. 

Future 

This center should remain local convenience in nature because of its location 
with respect to a complicated intersection causing hazardious ingress and egress 
movements. 



- 100- 



East University Avenue at 24th Street 
Existing 

This local convenience center has recently opened. It contains a small grocery 
and laundromat. 

Future 

It is recommended that this center remain a local convenience center because 
of its lack of access from four directions and because of possible detrimential effects 
upon surrounding residential developments. The future land use plan proposes a 
neighborhood center on East University to serve this need for the developing resi- 
dential of the area. 

East University Avenue at 39th Street 

Existing 

This is a local convenience center with some unoccupied floor space. 
Future 

It is recommended that this center remain local convenience in nature. 
Utilization of the vacant floor space should be encouraged before additional struc- 
tures are added. Further residential development to create a better market will 
be necessary before additional commercial can be justified. 

Hawthorne Road at SE 23rd Street 

Existing 

This is a local convenience center with a limited number of outlets. 
Future 

This center should remain local convenience in nature because of the lack of 
available adjacent land, the limited market, and the lack of proper vehicular ac- 
cess required for a larger center. 



-101- 



Neighborhood Centers 

27. West University Avenue at 34th Street (West Side) 
Existing 

Th is is a neighborhood center with a supermarket and drug store as its major ten- 
ants. It also contains a womens clothing store, take-out food store, travel agency, 
and a florist. Some comparison shopping is done between this center and Westgate 
Center, creating some cross traffic and congestion. Together, these two centers con- 
tain all the stores generally found in a community center. There is a new office park 
nearby which is developing in accordance with the adopted plan for this area, and there i 
apartment complex across the street. 

Future 

Because there is additional vacant land in this site and because of its location 
on major thoroughfares, there will probably be pressures placed on the center to de- 
velop in non-local uses. Since there is another planned non-local center nearby and 
because of the heavy traffic congestion apparent in the area, it is recommended that 
the remaining vacant land be developed by local commercial ucos which will cater 
to the adjacent apartment developments. 

28. North Main Street at 10th Avenue ( SE Corner) 
Existing 

This is a neighborhood center with several "hybrid" retail outlets, such as a 
restaurant, and an office and other shops. The outward appearance of this center 
is marginal. Landscaping could be used to substantially improve the appearance. 

Future 

The demand for future expansion on this site should be limited to local conven- 
ience outlets to serve the new low rent housing for the elderly and other nearby high 
density residential areas. The non-local commercial needs for the area are adequately 
served by the nearby community center and the Central Business District. 

29. NE 16th Avenue at 12th Street(Northgate) 
Existing 

This is a neighborhood center with adequate off-street parking and adjacent land 
for future expansion. This center serves primarily northeast Gainesville. It is well 
located with respect to service area, although not so well with respect to the street 
network. 



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Future 

It is important that any future commercial development be part of the center 
versus unplanned commercial sprawl which would destroy the residential character 
of the surrounding area. It is recommended that this center remain a neighborhood 
center because of its location with respect to the street network and its setting in a 
well-established homogeneous residential area. Existing and future development 
should be well buffered by trees, shrubs, etc. to preserve the sense of unity and 
function of this development. 

Community Centers 

30. West University Avenue at 34th Street (Wes tgate Center) 
Existing 

This is currently a small community center with a supermarket, restaurant, 
variety store, and other tenants. The site is fully developed. 

Future 

This center should remain a community center with any nearby expansion 
limited to offices or other low intensity use in an effort to preserve the traffic 
carrying capacity of this intersection. 

31. NW 13th Street at 23rd Boulevard (Field's Plaza ) 
Existing 

This center functions as a community center with a limited number of stores. 
It contains two "hybrid" discount retail outlets, plus a theatre. Much of this 
center's business is generated by the proximity of the Gainesville Mall across the 
street and vice versa. 

Future 

It is expected that no additional commercial expansion in this center will be 
needed, but there is vacant land available south of the theatre. Attention should 
be focused toward improving the landscaping in and around the parking areas and 
buffering any future development west of the center. 

32. West University Av enue at 6th Street (Central Plaza) 
Existing 

This is a community center with a limited number of stores. The major tenants 
are a supermarket and a variety store. This center serves much of the older, more 



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intensely developed core oron o r Gainesville. 
Future 

The existing site is fully developed, ond the possibility of future expansion 
is doubtful . It is likely that fl:e existing railroad rmcks will eventually I 9 re- 
moved and widening of 6th Street will ensue. This eventuality would enhance 
this center's accessibility end would lessen several traffic hazards. 

33. North Main Street at lOHi Avenue (Gainesville Shannina, Center) 
Existing 

This is a large community shopping center with a supermarket and junior de- 
partment store as major tenants, however, some of the stores ere presently vacant. 
There is also a rather complete line of comparison shopping stores. There is, distinct 
absence of landscaping in and around this center. 

Future 

This center is completely developed. Parking areas should be adequately land- 
scaped and natural physical obstacles should be introduced to define lanes of move- 
ment within the vast open parking area. 

Major Centers 

34. NW 13th Street at 23rd Boulevard (Gainesville Mal l) 
Existing 

This is a major shopping center which serves all of Alachua County and portions 
of surrounding counties. Intensive commercial development exists on two of the 
other three corners abutting the adjacent intersection. 

Future 

This site is completely developed at present, however, higher intensity develop- 
ment may be possible. Particular attention should be given to improving the land- 
scaping in and around the parking areas. In addition, another center is p'anned across 
the street which will place an added burden of traffic and cross traffic between the 
centers in this area. No further commercial expansion to the west should be allowed 
and buffering should be provided as needed. 



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The Proposed Commercial Land Use Plan - A Summary of Recommendations 

The proposed Commercial Land Use Plan as presented is both specific and 
general in nature. It is specific in outlining "strip commercial" areas and probable 
future shopping center sites in the older more developed areas of Gainesville, Much 
of the commercial zoning and market potential necessary for future implementation 
of this portion of the plan presently exists in these areas. However, in outlying 
areas which are presently sparsely developed and are expected to remain basically 
the same at least until 1980, the symbols indicate only general locations for shopping 
centers needed to adequately serve the population when these areas are developed. 

Strip Commercial Areas 

The presence of Strip Commercial development in cities is a result ofthe urbani- 
zation process and often reflects the need in prior years for pedestrian orienred 
commercial areas near residential sections. Since the rapid rise in automobile usage 
and the resultant urban sprawl these strip developments have tended to follow the 
major arteries and serve as locations for auto oriented activities. Strip locations will 
continue to appeal to uses catering to impulse shopping from passerby traffic, to uses that 
cannot afford center locations and to those desiring to locate near the homes of customers. 

In emphasis, although present strip commercial developments have several 
functional, design, and aesthetic drawbacks, the incorporation of the following 
policies should lessen the negative impact strip commercial development often has 
upon the community. 

1. Encourage the grouping of similar and compatible uses in specific areas 

to enhance comparison shopping and convenience. The grouping of automobile 
sales and service along North Main Street is an example. 

2. Encouragement of a service drive for access to "strip" businesses to lessen 
direct access points onto major thoroughfares via curb cuts. 

3. Encourage the utilization of vacant parcels of land in existing commercial 
areas in deference to the needless opening up of new areas to strip commercial. 

4. Encouragement of more restrictive sign controls not only in strip areas but also 
in shopping centers. 

Seventeen major strip areas have previously been reviewed and existing and 
proposed land uses for each area were depicted. The proposed land use plan for each 
area is a result of "rounding off" these areas with commercial development and buffering 
stepping down and cutting back. The total additional commercial acreage as proposed in 
these areas is about 163 acres . Examination of Table 6 on page 15 indicates that there 
should be a demand for an additional 83 acres in strip commercial areas by iy80. The 
figure of 83 acres was based on the assumption that all additional automotive and mis- 
cellaneous (lumber building material, farm equipment, commercial recreation, and ^ 
hotels and motels) commercial businesses would locate in strip areas. In addition, it 



-105- 



was felt that approximately 70 percent of eating and drinking establishments and 50 per- 
cent of furniture and appliance stores would continue to locate in these areas. Because 
of the lack of standards for dollar sales per square foot for commercial reaction businesses 
and hotels and motels, and because of the uncertainties involved in projecting the effects 
of tourism locally, no projections of land use needs for these business e s were made or indicated 
in Table 6 on page 15 . \f is therefore believed that the projection of additional strip 
commercial land needs by 1980 is slightly conservative. 

In addition to the major strip commercial areas examined previously, there are 
approximately 250 acres of commercial land use provided at the three existing inter- 
changes with 1-75 and the proposed interchange at Archer Road. The three interchanges 
presently have approximately 525 acres of commercial zoning abutting them and strung 
out along the major thoroughfares away from the interchanges. It is recommended that 
the approximate 1000 feet of depth of zoning along the thoroughfares be cut back to 
about 600 feet. It is also recommended that the amount of commercial frontage along 
the thoroughfares be cut back to alleviate much of the potential for strip commercial de- 
velopments which create severe circulation problems. 

Thus, the Plan provides for roughly twice as much land (163 acres) for commercial 
areas than is needed by 1980 (83 acres). In addition approximately 250 acres of commer- 
cial land use has been provided at the 1-75 interchanges. An overall sound development 
policy would dictate that no additional new areas be "opened up" to strip commercial 
development until the older areas are fully utilized. 

Shopping Centers 

As described previously, a properly designed shopping center can be an attractive 
and convenient facility to serve a neighborhood. Several of the policies for the future 
development of strip commercial areas as stated above are characteristic of shopping cen- 
ter developments. That is, there is a grouping of similar uses providing convenient com- 
parison shopping and limited ingress and egress points onto major thoroughfares. 

As is the case with many of the strip commercial areas, several of the potential 
sites for shopping centers by 1980 have already been appropriately zoned. Shaded sym- 
bols have thus been shown on these proposed specific areas. Those sites for new shopping 
centers are based primarily upon past and present growth trends in apartments, single 
family residences, and mobile homes which stimulate new commercial growth. Proposed 
general locations for shopping centers after 1980 are depicted by unshaded symbols. 

Shopping Centers Needed by 1980 



No previous mention has been made of a phenomenon now occurring across the 
nation. This is the rapid spread of the various "local convenience" grocery stores 



* Planning Division estimate 



-106- 



which are generally open from 7 a.m. to 11 p.m., seven days a week. There are 
presently about forty-five of these convenience grocery stores in the Gainesville 
Urban Area. Review of national statistics and an interview with the regional office 
of a convenience grocery store chain has led to the belief ihat these stores now ac- 
count for approximately 17 percent of food sales in the Urban Area or about 5„6 
million dollars annually in 1967 (see Table 4 on page 12 ) |t ; s believed that the 
importance of these convenience stores will continue during the planning period. 
It is likely that approximately 30 additional convenience stores will be supported 
by their share of the expected annual increase in dollars available for food by 1980. 
Existing stores have located either by themselves or in many instances have satellite 
tenants such as a laundromat or liquor store included to form a Local Convenience 
Center. No effort has been made to locate such centers in the Preliminary Com- 
mercial Land Use Plan . 

The projected number of additional Neighborhood Centers needed by 1980 
is based upon the expected annual increase in dollar sales for food In the Urban Area 
(see Table 6 on page 15 ). It must be emphasized that these are only rough projections. 
Ultimate development should be based upon demand as verified through a market analysis. 
By subtracting the dollar sales increase allocated to convenience grocery stores by 1980, 
supermarkets are expected to capture an additional $22, 1 10,000 annually by 1980„ This 
would mean that an additional eleven (11) supermarkets could be supported by the expected 
annual increase in food dollars available between now and 1980 as calculated below. 

Additional food dollars available $22,110,000 

12 

Average annual dollar sales per square foot of GLA $ 96 

Additional square feet of GLA: $22,110,000 = 231,500 sq.ft. 

$96 / sq.ft. 

12 

Average GLA of supermarkets: » 21 ,600 sq.ft. 

Store 

Projected number of new supermarkets : 23 1 , 500 sq . f t . = . .10.72 stores 

21,600 sq. ft/store 

At present there are twelve supermarkets in the Urban Area representing five 
major supermarket chains. Nine (9) of these supermarkets are located in planned 
shopping centers. It is assumed that all additional supermarkets will locate in either 
planned neighborhood or community centers because the success of supermarkets is 
enhanced by the close proximity of other stores. The success of supermarkets in large 
regional or major centers, however, has waned because most people tend to do the majority 
of their grocery shopping at either neighborhood or community centers while depending 
upon more distant major centers for comparison shopping for durable goods. 



-107- 



The Plan indicates, using shaded symbols, proposed locations for seven (7) 
additional neighborhood centers, three (3) additional community centers, and one 
(1) additional major center possibly needed by the end of the planning period to 
1980. It must be emphasized that these general locations are only preliminary in 
that they are based upon an anticipated growth pattern during the next decade. 
It is also appropriate to point out that any actual developments should follow 
the locational and design criteria and meet market analysis requirements as pre- 
viously stated. 

Neighborhood Centers 

Planned neighborhood centers should provide the basic weekly convenience 
needs of the surrounding residential areas (groceries, drugs, barber shop, etc.). 
As such, the following locations have been designated as potential sites for new 
neighborhood centers by 1980. 

1. S.W. Archer Road West of 1-75 

It is recommended that a neighborhood center be located in this pre- 
dominatly mobile home area when the need exists and that adequate 
consideration be given to major transportation links from all four 
directions rather than just clong the Archer Road. Under no cir- 
cumstances should non-center businesses be introduced into this 
mobile home area inflicting the aforementioned strip commercial 
"deseases" upon this area. 

2. S.W. Archer Road at S.W. 34th Street 

When sufficient single family and residential growth occurs around 
this intersection (as determined by a market analysis) it is recom- 
mended that a neighborhood shopping center be designed and devel- 
oped in such a way as to not overly congest f-his intersection. Simi- 
larly, any strip commercial development near this intersection should 
be prohibited. 

3. N.W. 43rd Street at 16 Boulevard 

When sufficient community growth occurs around this intersection 
it is recommended that a planned neighborhood center be developed 
(see discussion in section on Planned Shopping Centers). 

4. N.W. 34th Street Extended 

It is recommended that when sufficient residential growth occurs in 
this area, the present commercial development should be expanded 
to include a supermarket and other tenants normally found in a 
neighborhood center (see discussion in section on Planned Shopping 
Centers). 



-108- 



5. N.W. 39th Avenue at N.E. 15th Street 

The likely residential development of the areas surrounding this inter- 
section should increase the demand for commercial uses near this 
intersection. It is recommended that when such a demand occurs 
it be fulfilled by a neighborhood level shopping center. 

6. S . E . 1 5th Street at S . E . 8th Avenue 

Residential development presently surrounds this intersection. It 
is recommended that a neighborhood level shopping center be 
developed on the land currently zoned for a shopping center to 
serve these residential areas. 

7. S. E . Hawthorne Road at S. E . 43rd Street 

It is recommended that when sufficient residential growth occurs 
in this area to support a neighborhood center that it be developed 
as such. A new junior - senior high school in this area may stimulate 
enough additional residential growth to support a shopping center 
during the planning period. 

Community Centers 

Planned community centers should provide for both the basic weekly convenience 
needs of the population and some of the comparison needs. These centers should meet 
all the design and locational requirements discussed previously. The following locations 
have been designated as potential sites for new neighborhood centers by 1980. 

1 . W. University Avenue at State Road 329 (W 43rd Street) 

This community center is presently in the planning stages and is to be 
developed in several phases. Its location so near the Westgate Shopping 
Center complex may create several problems of traffic congestion unless 
adequate signalization and ingress and egress movements are provided. 
Under no circumstances should strip commercial activities be allowed to 
develop along the West University Avenue frontages in this area. 

2. N.W. 13th Street Opposite the Gainesville Mall 

This community center is also currently in the planning stages. Additional 
signalization on N. W. 13th Street will likely be required to handle 
anticipated cross traffic between this center and the Gainesville Mall. 
This center, together with the Mall and Fields Plaza, places a tremendous 
potential for auto congestion and a demand for street improvements 
in and around the area. 



- 109- 



3. S.W. 13th Street at S.W. Williston Road 

It is recommended that by 1980 a community center be constructed near 
this intersection, but only after a thorough market analysis. Because of the 
tremendous recent development ot apartment complexes and single 
family dwellings in this southern area of Gainesville, it is believed 
the greatest potential for shopping center development presently lies 
near this general location. If, however, commercial development 
occurs in the Biven's Arm area along S.W. 13th Street and^r the 
major apartment and single family development trend in the South- 
west Area moves farther west from the S.W. 13th Street area, two 
other sites seem logical alternatives. These two sites are: 

(1) Near the intersection of S.W. Williston Road and 
I -75; and 

(2) on the Archer Road west of 1-75. 

However, only two (2) of these three (3) possible sites will ultimately 
be needed sometime after 1980. 

Major Centers 

Major centers should provide a wide range of comparison goods in order to 
serve a large regional trade area. In the Gainesville Urban Area such a center would 
serve all of Alachua County and portions of surrounding counties. The Gainesville 
Mall is the only existing planned Major Center. The Downtown Gainesville area, 
although not a planned shopping center per se, functions as a major commercial 
attraction. Therefore, projections for additional Major Centers are based upon the 
assumption that Downtown will continue to function as a major commercial attraction. 
Only one(l Additional planned major center is recommended by 1980. Because of 
the existing commercial developments and the current planned development of two 
(2) additional community centers, it is believed that another major center may possibly 
be needed by 1980 or near the end of the planning period. The recommended location 
is near the intersection of the recently improved Newberry Road and 1-75. This 
location, with respect to the transportation system, will provide excellent access to 
the center from all population areas in the region. This location is also distant enough 
from the major existing areas of comparison shopping such that it will not detract 
significantly from their trade areas. A summary of the approximate allocation of 
acreage for new shopping centers by 1980 is provided below. 



-110- 



Additional Shopping Center by 1980 



Type of Center Number of new centers Acres 



Local Convenience na 30 

Neighborhood 7 28 

Community 3 30 

Major 1 35 

Total TT 723 



As this table indicates 123 acres has been provided in the plan for shopping centers 
by 1980. This is the amount estimated to be needed in the market analysis presented 
earlier. A grand total of approximately 635 acres of commercial are recommended in 
the land use plan for 1980. Again, this amount far exceeds what is expected to be used, 
but is a result of adjusting to what is now zoned, "rounding off" strip areas, and providing 
for tourist facilities at the freeway interchanges. It also inci udes approxirra tely 90 acres 
added in the North Main Street area after the discussion of strip areas in this report was 
completed, plus a few additional miscellaneous parcels not mentioned previously. 

Additional Shopping Centers After 1980 

All other symbols on the preliminary Commercial Land Use Plan refer to possible 
shopping centers after 1980. The locations shown are not meant to be rigid or specific, 
but only general indications of the need in a given area if full development is accomplished, 
with no major divergences from present growth trends. 

Two factors must be kept in mind in evaluating the plan in terms of these Centers. 
First, the plan assumes that development of commercial in the long range future will be 
on a more planned, orderly basis than today, which means primarily the growth of 
shopping centers as opposed to scattered parcel development. The difference can be 
significant. For example, only three existing centers were classified as neighborhood 
while seven were recommended for 1980. This does not mean there is deficit in the 
types of activities found in such centers now, only that the activities are now located 
elsewhere. Secondly, the number of centers were derived on the basis of the total hold- 
ing capacity for the Urban area as a whole and then distributed on the basis of assumed 
development patterns and densities. Different directions of growth, shifts in urban den- 
sities or composition of the population would of course affect the pattern of centers as shown. 
In addition, the number of centers are based on a numerical ratio of persons per center, 

and not on a more precise economic standard. They can only be considered as a rough 
indication as a result. 

Local Convenience Centers 

As was described earlier, the local convenience grocery store chains and satellite 
uses have made significant inroads in Gainesville and many other communities. It 
is felt that these convenience commercial outlets will continue to cater to the 
needs and demands of a mobile society . Therefore, the projected land needs for 
these types of commercial uses after 1980 have been based upon the same growth rate as 



projected for these uses before 1980. The projected increase in land use for these com- 
mercial establishments between 1970 and 1980 is 30 acres. This is the period in which 
the Urban Area population is projected to increase by approximately 40,000 persons. 
Between 1980 and whatever year full development occurs in the Area, approximately 
205,000 additional persons will be housed in the Urban Area or about five (5) times as 
many more additional persons as projected to be added to the Urban Area population 
during the 1970-80 decade. Assuming a continued demand for these stores approxi- 
mately 150 additional acres (5 x 30 acres) will be required for these Local Conveni- 
ence outlets after 1980. Again, no attempt has been made to locate these centers on 
the Land Use Plan. 

Neighborhood Centers 

Within the standards for neighborhood shopping centers set forth earlier, it is ex- 
pected that a neighborhood center, such as the existing Northgate shopping center, will 
be supported by approximately 6,000 residents (See Table 13). The additional popu- 
lation projected for the Urban Area after 1980 is approximately 205,000 persons. There- 
fore, thirty-three (33) additional neighborhood centers could be built in conjunction 
with the population needs after 1980, utilizing approximately 130 acres. The approxi- 
mate number of these centers are shown by planning district based upon their individual 
population holding capacities. 

Community Centers 

As indicated in Table 13, "Shopping Center Standards", the Community Center 
requires a minimum of 5,000 families to support it. It is projected that approximately 
nine (9) additional Community Centers will be required after 1980, utilizing about 90 
acres. This would generally provide an average of 25,000 persons per Community Center, 
which is significantly above the minimum standard stated above but more in keeping with 
national average for larger cities. These centers have been shown in approximate loca- 
tions to serve the anticipated commercial needs when the surrounding areas are developed 
residential ly. 

Regional Centers 

In the long range commercial development plan for the Gaire wille Urban Area, 
the Downtown Area and the Gainesville Mall area must be considered as regional com- 
mercial complexes. As was indicated in the previous section of commercial projections 
to 1980, it is anticipated that a third regional center would best be located in the vicin- 
ity of intersection of Newberry Road (SR ^26) and highway 1-75. This center is expected 
to be feasible during or slightly after 1980 if urban growth continues in this northwestly 
area. With a minimum support of 100,000 persons per regional center, it is expected 
that three (3) large regional complexes will be all that it needed to serve the residents 
of the Gainesville Urban Area. Thirty- five (35) acres were allotted for this third re- 
gional center in the projection for shopping center land needs before 1980. 



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Additional Shopping Centers 
After 1980 



Type of Center 


Number of new centers 


Acres 


Local Convenience 


n/a 


150 


Neighborhood 


33 


130 


Community 


9 


90 


Major 








Total 


42 


370 



Concl usions 



Roughly 1,000 acres of commercial land, in addition to that already developed, 
is recommended in the plan. The amount is imprecise because the size of shopping 
centers varies and the plan is generalized to a large extent. This amount will far 
exceed what will likely ever be developed. In fact the trend in commercial devel- 
opment has been to concentrate and economize on land usage through shopping cen- 
ters, especially in areas developed in the last decade. It is likely that this trend 
will predominate in the Gainesville Urban Area where the largest portion of ur- 
banized development is yet to come. 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1 . Alachua County, Tax Assessor, Special Computer Print Out, 1968. 

2. Applied Parking Techniques, Parking Progress, Bulletin^ 121, 1968. 



3. Boyd, David E., The Impact of the Office Worker on Downtown Gainesville, 
Florida, a thesis presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida, 
August, 1966. 

4. City of Gainesvil le, Department of Community Development, Planning Division 
Reports: 

a. Planning Unit Study , July, 1968. 

b Enrollments and Employment, University of Florida and Santa Fe Junior 
College, September, 1967. 

c. Population Study, January, 1968. 

d. Land Use Analysis, January, 1969. 

e. "Survey of Out-of-Town Shoppint", April, 1967. 

f. Economic Base Study, January, 1969. 

g. Downtown Gainesville, 1963. 



5. National Industrial Conference Board, Expenditure Patterns of the American 
Family, based on U. S. Department of Labor Statistics, 1965. 

6. Sales Management, Survey of Buying Power, June, 1968 

7. State of Florida, 1967 Florida Tourist Study. 

8. United States Bureau of Labor Statistics for the Southern Region. 

9. University of Florida, Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Florida 
Abstract Book, 1967. 

10. University of Florida, Student Income and Expenditures, May, 1967. 

11. Urban Land Institute, The Community Builders Handbook, 1968. 

12. Urban Land Institute, Parking Requirements for Shopping Centers, Techinical 
Bulletin, 5C, 1968.